Abstract

Al2O3 slab waveguide films were doped with erbium using ion implantation to a peak concentration of 1.5 at. %. Prism coupling measurements show absorption caused by 4I 15/24I 13/2 intra-4f transitions in Er3+ with a maximum at 1.530 µm of 8 dB/cm. The Er3+ absorption cross section is determined as a function of wavelength. We used the McCumber theory to derive the emission cross section spectrum from the absorption results, which we then compared with the Er3+ photoluminescence spectrum. The peak absorption and emission cross sections are found to be 6 × 10-21 cm-2. The results are used to predict the optical gain performance of an Er-doped Al2O3 optical amplifier that operates around 1.5 µm.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare-Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 1–37.
  2. A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.
  3. M. K. Smit, Integrated Optics in Silicon-Based Aluminium Oxide, Ph.D. dissertation (Optics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 31–53.
  4. G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 954–957 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Miniscalco, R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 954–957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. J.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. G.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Di Giovanni, D. J.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, J. R.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hüfner, S.

S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare-Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 1–37.

Kisliuk, P.

P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.

Koper, R. J. I. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lerminiaux, C.

A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.

Lester, C.

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lumholt, O.

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 954–957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, M.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Nykolak, G.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

Rajnak, K.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, T.

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ries, R.

A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.

Shmulovich, J.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit, Integrated Optics in Silicon-Based Aluminium Oxide, Ph.D. dissertation (Optics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 31–53.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Hoven, G. N.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Willems, F. W.

A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.

Wong, Y. H.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J. W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, “Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3065–3067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, R. J. I. M. Koper, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Net optical gain at 1.53 µm in Er-doped Al2O3 waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886–1888 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystal doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Nykolak, P. C. Becker, J. Shmulovich, Y. H. Wong, D. J. Di Giovanni, A. J. Bruce, “Concentration-dependent 4I13/2 lifetimes in Er3+-doped planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1014–1016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Henderson, M. Muramoto, K. Rajnak, J. G. Conway, “Energy levels of single-crystal erbium oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 45, 477–482 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Kisliuk, W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Spectrum of Er3+ in single crystals of Y2O3,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3606–3610 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

O. Lumholt, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, C. Lester, “Rare earth-doped integrated glass components: modeling and optimization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 954–957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Hüfner, Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare-Earth Compounds (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 1–37.

A. M. J. Koonen, F. W. Willems, R. Ries, C. Lerminiaux, “System requirements and opportunities for lossless integrated active splitters,” in Proceedings of Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 479–482.

M. K. Smit, Integrated Optics in Silicon-Based Aluminium Oxide, Ph.D. dissertation (Optics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 31–53.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Depth profile of an Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguide showing the Er concentration profile derived from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (solid curve). The dotted curve shows the calculated optical mode profile at 1.53 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Prism coupling measurements of the optical loss in an Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguide film for two different wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical loss (filled circles and dashed curve, left scale) as a function of wavelength for an Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguide film. For comparison, the photoluminescence emission spectrum of the same sample is shown (solid curve, right scale).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section spectra for the 4I13/24I15/2 transition in Er-implanted Al2O3: (a) absorption as determined from prism coupling measurements (circles and solid curve), the dashed curve is an extrapolation; (b) emission calculated from the absorption data with the McCumber theory (circles and solid curve) and the measured photoluminescence spectrum (dotted curve) scaled to overlay the calculated spectrum.

Equations (2)

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σemν=σabsνZlZu expEZL-hν/kT,
dPzdz=-σabsλNyIydyPz,

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