Abstract

A laboratory facility to measure the point-spread function (PSF) of water with the addition of scattering layers is described. The PSF was measuredby using an approximately Lambertian source and a camera that viewed this source but focused at infinity. Measurements for various optical path lengths with the scattering layer in three separate regions, i.e., near the source, near the camera, and an intermediate case, were performed. The PSF was found to depend strongly on the location of the scattering layer. For the same optical path length, the most diffuse PSF was found for the case of a scattering layer near the camera.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Williams, O. Bechlund, Introduction to the Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 43–48.
  2. K. J. Voss, A. Chapin, “Measurement of the point spread function in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3638–3642 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” in Optics of the Sea (NATO, Neuilly sur Seine, France, 1973), Chap. 3.3, pp. 1–19.
  4. H. R. Gordon, “Equivalence of the point and beam spread functions of scattering media: a formal demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1120–1122 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. McLean, K. J. Voss, “Point spread function in ocean water: comparison between theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2027–2030 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. J. Voss, “Variability of the point spread function in the water column,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 355–359 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. J. Voss, “Variation of the point spread function in the Sargasso Sea,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 97–100 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater lighting by submerged lasers and incandescent sources,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1971).
  9. T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1972).
  10. R. C. Smith, K. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. J. Voss, “Simple empirical model of the oceanic point spread function,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2647–2651 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1991

1990

1981

Baker, K.

Bechlund, O.

C. Williams, O. Bechlund, Introduction to the Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 43–48.

Chapin, A.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater lighting by submerged lasers and incandescent sources,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1971).

Gordon, H. R.

McLean, J.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1972).

Smith, R. C.

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, “Simple empirical model of the oceanic point spread function,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2647–2651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. McLean, K. J. Voss, “Point spread function in ocean water: comparison between theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2027–2030 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, A. Chapin, “Measurement of the point spread function in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3638–3642 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, “Variability of the point spread function in the water column,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 355–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, “Variation of the point spread function in the Sargasso Sea,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 97–100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W.

W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” in Optics of the Sea (NATO, Neuilly sur Seine, France, 1973), Chap. 3.3, pp. 1–19.

Williams, C.

C. Williams, O. Bechlund, Introduction to the Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 43–48.

Appl. Opt.

Other

C. Williams, O. Bechlund, Introduction to the Optical Transfer Function (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 43–48.

W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” in Optics of the Sea (NATO, Neuilly sur Seine, France, 1973), Chap. 3.3, pp. 1–19.

K. J. Voss, “Variability of the point spread function in the water column,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 355–359 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, “Variation of the point spread function in the Sargasso Sea,” in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1537, 97–100 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater lighting by submerged lasers and incandescent sources,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1971).

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, 1972).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental tank layout. The position of the flash-lamp source, receiving camera, and intervening Plexiglas dividers are shown; trans is the transmissometer measuring the beam attenuation in the scattering layer (in this case between separators 3 and 4, nearest the flash lamp).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample PSF’s at τ = 1.6 for each scattering layer case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resulting slopes of log(PSF) versus log(angle) are shown as a function of optical path length, with the scattering layer in different positions. The most diffusing case, for the same path length, occurs with the scattering layer near the camera. Also shown is the empirical fit to the data in each case.

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