Abstract

We report the studies of conjugated polymers, polyaniline thin films, with a near-field scanning optical microscope. Because of the absorption variation in different oxidation states, transmission-mode near-field scanning optical microscope images were employed to map out the distribution of the oxidation states on a submicrometer scale. When the near-field wavelength is varied (between 632.8 and 543.5 nm), the phase separation between the oxidized and the reduced repeated units, with domain sizes on a nanometer-length scale, is observed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. G. MacDiarmid, “The polyanilines: a novel class of conducting polymers,” in Proceedings of the 1991 Nobel Symposium on Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials, W. R. Salaneck, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), pp. 73–98.
  6. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Polyaniline plasticized with 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: structure and doping behavior,” Macromolecules 26, 3254–3261 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Structure and Properties of poly(acrylic acid)-doped polyaniline,” Macromolecules 28, 2858–2866 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Structure and Properties of poly(acrylic acid)-doped polyaniline,” Macromolecules 28, 2858–2866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Polyaniline plasticized with 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: structure and doping behavior,” Macromolecules 26, 3254–3261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. A.

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Structure and Properties of poly(acrylic acid)-doped polyaniline,” Macromolecules 28, 2858–2866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Polyaniline plasticized with 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: structure and doping behavior,” Macromolecules 26, 3254–3261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, K. R.

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U. T.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W. S.

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, P. M.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. H.

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. T.

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Structure and Properties of poly(acrylic acid)-doped polyaniline,” Macromolecules 28, 2858–2866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Polyaniline plasticized with 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: structure and doping behavior,” Macromolecules 26, 3254–3261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDiarmid, A. G.

A. G. MacDiarmid, “The polyanilines: a novel class of conducting polymers,” in Proceedings of the 1991 Nobel Symposium on Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials, W. R. Salaneck, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), pp. 73–98.

Martin, J. C.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. C.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 249–251 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, “Direct measurements of true vibrational amplitude in shear force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835–3837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (3)

H. T. Lee, K. R. Chuang, S. A. Chen, P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, “Conductivity relaxation of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-plasticized polyaniline film,” Macromolecules 28, 7645–7652 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Polyaniline plasticized with 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone: structure and doping behavior,” Macromolecules 26, 3254–3261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Chen, H. T. Lee, “Structure and Properties of poly(acrylic acid)-doped polyaniline,” Macromolecules 28, 2858–2866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, R. A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. G. MacDiarmid, “The polyanilines: a novel class of conducting polymers,” in Proceedings of the 1991 Nobel Symposium on Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials, W. R. Salaneck, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1993), pp. 73–98.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics