Abstract

Two distributed-feedback (InGaAsP) diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of the parallel and the perpendicular components of the 2ν 4 band of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and the 2ν 3 band of methane (CH4) near 1.65 µm. The room-temperature absorption measurements, which were conducted in a multipass cell with a variable path length (878–1020 cm), were used to determine the mole fractions of the constituent gases and thus demonstrate species-specific, nonintrusive concentration measurements of species with overlapping spectra.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Lovelock, “Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 252, 292–294 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Lovelock, “Natural halocarbons in the air and in the sea,” Nature (London) 256, 193–194 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Arroyo, S. Langlois, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption technique for simultaneous measurements of multiple gasdynamic parameters in high-speed flows containing water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3296–3306 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. P. Arroyo, T. P. Birbeck, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Dual diode-laser fiber-optic diagnostic for water-vapor measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1091–1093 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, N. K. L. M. Gopaul, “Multiplexed diode-laser sensor system for simultaneous H2O, O2, and temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1900–1902 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  13. M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. H. Nielsen, E. F. Barker, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Phys. Rev. 46, 970–974 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. M. Holladay, “A reinvestigation of the infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1962).
  17. T. M. Holladay, A. H. Nielsen, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 371–396 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).
  19. J. S. Margolis, “Absorption strength of the perturbed ν4 band of CH3Cl,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 257–262 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. G. Brown, T. H. Edwards, “Infrared spectrum of methyl chloride near 6000 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 384–388 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Herzberg, “Infrared and Raman spectra of polyatomic molecules,” in Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), Vol. 2, pp. 312–314.
  26. J. S. Margolis, “Measured line positions and strengths of methane between 5500 and 6180 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4038–4051 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. R. Gunson, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment—the ATLAS-1 mission,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, U. Platt, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 513–521 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Margolis, “Measured line positions and strengths of methane between 5500 and 6180 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4038–4051 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. S. Margolis, “Absorption strength of the perturbed ν4 band of CH3Cl,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 257–262 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. E. Lovelock, “Natural halocarbons in the air and in the sea,” Nature (London) 256, 193–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Lovelock, “Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 252, 292–294 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).

1964 (1)

T. M. Holladay, A. H. Nielsen, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 371–396 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. G. Brown, T. H. Edwards, “Infrared spectrum of methyl chloride near 6000 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 384–388 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

A. H. Nielsen, E. F. Barker, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Phys. Rev. 46, 970–974 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

Barker, E. F.

A. H. Nielsen, E. F. Barker, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Phys. Rev. 46, 970–974 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Betrencourt, M.

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Birbeck, T. P.

Blanquet, G.

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, R.

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. G.

R. G. Brown, T. H. Edwards, “Infrared spectrum of methyl chloride near 6000 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 384–388 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, K. L.

Chou, S. I.

Crutzen, P. J.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dang-Nhu, M.

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Derie, F.

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Derwent, R. G.

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T. H.

R. G. Brown, T. H. Edwards, “Infrared spectrum of methyl chloride near 6000 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 384–388 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Elkins, J. W.

J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, P.

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, E. R.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gopaul, N. K. L. M.

Graner, G.

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

M. R. Gunson, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment—the ATLAS-1 mission,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, U. Platt, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 513–521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Heidt, L. E.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, “Infrared and Raman spectra of polyatomic molecules,” in Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), Vol. 2, pp. 312–314.

Holladay, T. M.

T. M. Holladay, A. H. Nielsen, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 371–396 (1964).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Holladay, “A reinvestigation of the infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1962).

Jones, E. W.

E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).

Kagann, R. H.

J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Krasnec, J. P.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, S.

Lovelock, J. E.

J. E. Lovelock, “Natural halocarbons in the air and in the sea,” Nature (London) 256, 193–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Lovelock, “Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 252, 292–294 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, J. S.

J. S. Margolis, “Measured line positions and strengths of methane between 5500 and 6180 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4038–4051 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Margolis, “Absorption strength of the perturbed ν4 band of CH3Cl,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 257–262 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morillon-Chapey, M.

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newfield, M. E.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, N. K. L. M. Gopaul, “Multiplexed diode-laser sensor system for simultaneous H2O, O2, and temperature measurements,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1900–1902 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, A. H.

T. M. Holladay, A. H. Nielsen, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 371–396 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Nielsen, E. F. Barker, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Phys. Rev. 46, 970–974 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D. A.

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Park, J. H.

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Penkett, S. A.

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, W. H.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Popplewell, R. J. L.

E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).

Raper, O. F.

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R. L.

J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, U.

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Segall, J.

Seiler, W.

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: application for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Thompson, H. W.

E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walrand, J.

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned-and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. G. Brown, T. H. Edwards, “Infrared spectrum of methyl chloride near 6000 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 384–388 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated source gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9836–9850 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, J. H. Park, “Infrared spectroscopic measurements of halogenated sink and reservoir gases in the stratosphere with the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9851–9858 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (4)

T. M. Holladay, A. H. Nielsen, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 14, 371–396 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Margolis, “Absorption strength of the perturbed ν4 band of CH3Cl,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 257–262 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elkins, R. H. Kagann, R. L. Sams, “Infrared band strengths for methyl chloride in the regions of atmospheric interest,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 480–490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Betrencourt, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, “Diode laser spectroscopy of methyl chloride near 14 µm toward its detection in the stratosphere,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 128, 433–443 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

M. Dang-Nhu, M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Graner, G. Guelachvili, “Intensities of the ν1-bands of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl near 3 µm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 515–521 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

M. Dang-Nhu, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, F. Derie, “Spectral intensities in the ν3-band of 12CH335Cl at 13 µm,” Mol. Phys. 65, 77–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (4)

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Pollock, W. Seiler, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O, NO, CH3Cl and COS,” Nature (London) 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Lovelock, “Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone,” Nature (London) 252, 292–294 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Lovelock, “Natural halocarbons in the air and in the sea,” Nature (London) 256, 193–194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Penkett, R. G. Derwent, P. Fabian, R. Borchers, U. Schmidt, “Methyl chloride in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 283, 58–60 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. H. Nielsen, E. F. Barker, “The infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Phys. Rev. 46, 970–974 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

E. W. Jones, R. J. L. Popplewell, H. W. Thompson, “Vibration–rotation bands of methyl chloride,” Spectrochim. Acta 22, 649–680 (1966).

Other (4)

M. G. Allen, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Diode laser instrumentation for aeropropulsion applications,” AIAA paper 95-0427 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1995).

T. M. Holladay, “A reinvestigation of the infrared spectrum of methyl chloride,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1962).

M. R. Gunson, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment—the ATLAS-1 mission,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, U. Platt, H. I. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 513–521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Herzberg, “Infrared and Raman spectra of polyatomic molecules,” in Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), Vol. 2, pp. 312–314.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured Fourier-transform IR absorption spectra of CH3Cl recorded with a resolution of 2 cm- 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CH3Cl spectra recorded in a test cell filled with 3 Torr of a CH3Cl/N2 mixture (XCH3Cl = 0.398). The upper panel shows the R branch of the parallel component of the 2ν 4 band (296 K). The arrows denote the Q branches of the perpendicular component of the 2ν 4 band. The lower panel shows the perpendicular component of the 2ν 4 band (290 K).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra recorded in CH3Cl/N2 mixtures with a total pressure of 1 atm at 296 K over a path length of 878 cm obtained when the laser wavelength was scanned ∼2 cm-1 (reference wavelength 6069 cm-1). The high-frequency fluctuations in the trace are due to optical interference effects from the test cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured peak absorbance (at 6069.7 cm-1) for various values of the CH3Cl mole fraction in CH3Cl/N2 mixtures at 296 K with a total pressure of 1 atm (L = 878 cm). The line is a least-squares fit through the data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recorded (a) CH4, (b) CH3Cl absorption spectra near 6069 cm-1 at 296 K with a path length of 878 cm. Cell conditions: (a) 9.5-Torr CH4, (b) 2.5-Torr CH3Cl/N2 mixture with X CH3Cl = 0.398. The measured absorption spectra recorded in the 1.94-cm-1 wavelength interval (between the dashed lines) were used to determine the individual concentrations of CH3Cl and CH4 in a mixture.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Recorded (a) CH4, (b) CH3Cl absorption spectra near 6077 cm-1 at 296 K with a path length of 878 cm. Cell conditions: (a) 1.14-Torr CH4, (b) 7.48-Torr CH3Cl/N2 mixture with X CH3Cl = 0.398. The measured absorption spectra recorded in the 0.44-cm-1 wavelength interval (between the dashed lines) were used to determine the individual concentrations of CH3Cl and CH4 in a mixture.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of (a) spectra calculated with data from Ref. 27 with (b) measured spectra under the same conditions (P = 9.5 Torr, T = 296 K, L = 878 cm). Features marked with stars denote the transitions within the R(7) manifold of the 2ν 3 band of the isotope species 13CH4. Many weaker transitions observed in this region are not listed in Ref.27.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the measured and the actual values of (top) CH4, (bottom) CH3Cl mole fractions in a static cell (T = 296 K, L = 878 cm). The error bars represent a 5% measurement uncertainty.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Total Absorption Strength (S F) of CH4 and CH3Cl over the Probed Spectral Regions

Equations (2)

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K=PXSFL,
K=j=1MKj=PLj=1MXjSF,j,

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