Abstract

The fundamental difference between time-resolved and coherence-gated imaging modalities in scattering media is analyzed in terms of their optical transfer functions. The effectiveness of coherence gating for multiple-scattering rejection is shown by imaging a 100-µm-thick razor blade hidden in the scattering phantoms (i.e., Intralipid suspensions) with different scattering coefficients. We found that the imaging contrast is limited by multiple scattering and speckle effects in high-scattering media, and the measured effective penetration depth of optical coherence tomography is approximately equal to six mean free paths under the experimental conditions of a numerical aperture of less than 0.1 and a scattering anisotropy of approximately 0.8.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5699–5707 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Bonner, R. F.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, R.

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huettmann, G.

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-P.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.-T

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Pan, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosperich, J.

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

D. Huang, J. Wang, C.-P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micro-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectrometry,” Laser Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight absorbance imaging of biomedical media,” Science 259, 1443–1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” in Ophthalmic Techniques III, J. Parel, Q. Ren, eds., Proc. SPIE1877, 136–144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Pan, R. Birngruber, R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis and experimental results,” in Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring, H. Foth, R. Marchesini, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, M. Robert-Nicaud, eds., Proc. SPIE2628, 239–248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T Pan, R. Engelhardt, J. Rosperich, G. Huettmann, R. Birngruber, “Measurement of optical-transport coefficients of Intralipid in visible and NIR range,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 354–363 (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the single-mode fiber OCT system for demonstrating the resolution limits. The elongated phase shift per PZT scan is ∼1.2 mm in tissue. PDA and PDB are photodetectors. The incident beam diameter is 1.2 mm, and the objective has a 30-mm focal length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transfer functions H T(k), H(k) for time-and coherence-gated methods, respectively. L c = 18 µ m, λ̅ = 0.8 µm, ≈ 7.9 µm-1, Δk ≈ 0.2 µm-1, and L T ≈ 6 µ m (τ ≈ 20 fs). Gaussian temporal profiles are assumed. H(k) has been reported in ref. (7).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recorded modulation versus geometric path in Intralipid. The inset shows the averaging over 10 measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT imaging of a 100-µm-thick razor blade hidden in Intralipid with μ s(830 nm) of 16, 64, and 127 cm-1. Light is incident from the left (the black area shows the electronic noise background). The pattern within the razor in a) is echo from SLD. The depths between the surface and the sharp edge are expressed in terms of mfp for images a), b), and c), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured modulation versus depth to show deviations from single-scattering regime (straight lines). The dashed line at d ≈ 0.5 mm indicates the position of the sharp edge of the razor blade immersed into the scattering sample.

Equations (5)

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IdLr=2IsIr1/2RLs1/2  CLs,
Idt=IsRdt  CTt,
I˜dLr=2IsIrF-11/2RkHk,
Idt=IsF-1RdkHTk,
Ĩdd  exp-μbd,

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