Abstract

Thin layers of GaN, a few micrometers thick, grown on sapphire substrate, are the basic structure in the rapidly developing GaN-based blue optoelectronics devices. We are looking for nondestructive, effective, and convenient characterization tools for GaN/sapphire. Ordinary Raman scattering measurements have limited use because strong Raman signals from the sapphire substrate overwhelm the GaN Raman features. We describe two techniques for making commercial laser Raman systems serve as convenient characterization tools for GaN/sapphire. One uses a near right-angle laser beam incidence, and the other uses microscope lens focusing. In these two ways the detected GaN Raman signals are much stronger than sapphire features, and correct assignments can be made quickly.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Davis, “III–V nitrides for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 702–712 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Strite, H. Morkoc, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 1237–1266 (1992); H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, M. Burns, “Large-band-gap SiC, III–V nitride, and II–VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363–1398 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Meng, T. A. Perry, “Strain effects in epitaxial GaN grown on AlN-buffered Si(111),” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7824–7828 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).
  15. H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).
  17. S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, “Raman effect of corundum,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009–1012 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, R. A. Stall, “Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN Mg epitaxial film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1529–1531 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Ejder, “Refractive index of GaN,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 6, 445–448 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Gervais, “Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1991), pp. 761–774.
  22. S. Nakashima, M. Hangyo, “Characterization of semiconductor materials by Raman microprobe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 965–975 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. J. H. Brenan, I. W. Hunter, “Chemical imaging with a confocal scanning Fourier-transform Raman microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7520–7528 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, R. A. Stall, “Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN Mg epitaxial film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1529–1531 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (7)

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

W. J. Meng, T. A. Perry, “Strain effects in epitaxial GaN grown on AlN-buffered Si(111),” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7824–7828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. H. Brenan, I. W. Hunter, “Chemical imaging with a confocal scanning Fourier-transform Raman microscope,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7520–7528 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

S. Strite, H. Morkoc, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 1237–1266 (1992); H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, M. Burns, “Large-band-gap SiC, III–V nitride, and II–VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363–1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. F. Davis, “III–V nitrides for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 702–712 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Nakashima, M. Hangyo, “Characterization of semiconductor materials by Raman microprobe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 965–975 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Ejder, “Refractive index of GaN,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 6, 445–448 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, “Raman effect of corundum,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009–1012 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

Barker, A. S.

D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Botchkarev, A.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brenan, C. J. H.

Burns, G.

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chern, C. S.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, S. W.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Dacol, F.

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

R. F. Davis, “III–V nitrides for electronic and optoelectronic applications,” Proc. IEEE 79, 702–712 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P. J.

D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ejder, E.

E. Ejder, “Refractive index of GaN,” Phys. Status. Solidi A 6, 445–448 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, R.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Feng, M.-S.

H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. C.

Ferry, D. K.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galzerani, J. C.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Gervais, F.

F. Gervais, “Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1991), pp. 761–774.

Giehler, M.

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. L.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.-D.

H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gurary, A.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

S. Nakashima, M. Hangyo, “Characterization of semiconductor materials by Raman microprobe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 965–975 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, X. H.

Huang, Z. C.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, I. W.

Hwang, C.-Y.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itie, J. P.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jauberthie-Carillon, C.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kachi, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kloidt, M.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Koide, N.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kolbas, R. M.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozawa, T.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, R. S.

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, “Raman effect of corundum,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009–1012 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Krishnankutty, S.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, W.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-R.

H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-C.

H.-R. Kuo, M.-S. Feng, J.-D. Guo, M.-C. Lee, “Raman scattering of Se-doped gallium nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5628–5632 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Li, Y.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lischka, K.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Lu, Y.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, K.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manchon, D.

D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Marinace, J. C.

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, W. E.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meng, W. J.

W. J. Meng, T. A. Perry, “Strain effects in epitaxial GaN grown on AlN-buffered Si(111),” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7824–7828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Strite, H. Morkoc, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 1237–1266 (1992); H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, M. Burns, “Large-band-gap SiC, III–V nitride, and II–VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363–1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murugkar, S.

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

Nakashima, S.

S. Nakashima, M. Hangyo, “Characterization of semiconductor materials by Raman microprobe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 965–975 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, T. A.

W. J. Meng, T. A. Perry, “Strain effects in epitaxial GaN grown on AlN-buffered Si(111),” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7824–7828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polian, A.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, “Raman effect of corundum,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009–1012 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L. H.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salagai, T.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, A.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

San Miguel, A.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schikora, D.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Schurman, M.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, R. A. Stall, “Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN Mg epitaxial film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1529–1531 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheih, S. J.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H. T.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Shmagin, I. K.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

Stall, R. A.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, R. A. Stall, “Waveguide study and refractive indices of GaN Mg epitaxial film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1529–1531 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strite, S.

S. Strite, H. Morkoc, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 1237–1266 (1992); H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, M. Burns, “Large-band-gap SiC, III–V nitride, and II–VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363–1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimato, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

Sverdlov, B.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, A.

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

Taga, Y.

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. G.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsen, K. T.

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimato, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, C.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, A. G. Thompson, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, C.-Y. Hwang, M. Schurman, Y. Li, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. Krishnankutty, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, S. J. Pearton, “Investigation of n- and p-type doping of GaN during epitaxial growth in a mass-production scale multiwafer-rotating-disk reactor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2075–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, P.

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zetherstrom, R. B.

D. Manchon, A. S. Barker, P. J. Dean, R. B. Zetherstrom, “Optical studies of the phonons and electrons in gallium nitride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 1227–1231 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Y.

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. D.

R. Zhang, K. Yang, L. H. Qin, B. Shen, H. T. Shi, Y. Shi, S. L. Gu, Y. D. Zheng, Z. C. Huang, J. C. Chen, “Optical properties of GaN film grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 840–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. Burns, F. Dacol, J. C. Marinace, B. A. Scott, E. Burstein, “Raman scattering in thin film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 356–357 (1973); A. Cingolani, M. Ferrara, M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, “First-order Raman scattering in GaN,” Solid State Commun. 58, 823–824 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Giehler, M. Ramsteiner, O. Brandt, H. Yang, K. H. Ploog, “Optical phonons of hexagonal and cubic GaN studied by infrared transmission and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 733–735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Sheih, K. T. Tsen, D. K. Ferry, A. Botchkarev, B. Sverdlov, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Electron–phonon interactions in the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1757–1759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabata, R. Enderlein, J. R. Leite, S. W. da Silva, J. C. Galzerani, D. Schikora, M. Kloidt, K. Lischka, “Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4137–4140 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

S. Nakashima, M. Hangyo, “Characterization of semiconductor materials by Raman microprobe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 965–975 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Murugkar, R. Merlin, A. Botchkarev, A. Salvador, H. Morkoc, “Second order Raman spectroscopy of the wurtzite form of GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6042–6043 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Meng, T. A. Perry, “Strain effects in epitaxial GaN grown on AlN-buffered Si(111),” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7824–7828 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozawa, T. Kachi, H. Kano, Y. Taga, M. Hashimoto, N. Koide, K. Manabe, “Raman scattering from LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1098–1101 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, “Raman effect of corundum,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009–1012 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

C. Yuan, T. Salagai, A. Gurary, P. Zawadzki, C. S. Chern, W. Kroll, R. A. Stall, Y. Li, M. Schurman, C.-Y. Hwang, W. E. Mayo, Y. Lu, S. J. Pearton, “High quality p-type GaN deposition on c-sapphire substrates in a multiwafer rotating-disk reactor,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, L163–L165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condensed Matter (1)

T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, “Polarized Raman spectra in GaN,” J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 7, L129–L133 (1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectra of a MOCVD-grown GaN/sapphire, N667, with various incident angles θ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectrum and Lorentz fits of a GaN/sapphire, N667, in the Raman shift range of (a) 500–600 cm-1, showing the weak GaN A1(TO) and E1(TO) modes, and (b) 700–790 cm-1, showing the weak GaN E1(LO) mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micro-Raman spectra of a Si-GaN/sapphire, N538, under excitation of 633 nm in (a) and 514 nm in (b), with (c) magnified by 10 with respect to (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sketch of laser Raman scattering geometry served for Fig.1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of a MOCVD-grown InGa/GaN/sapphire, N423, with (a) no polarization arrangement, (b) parallel polarized configuration, and (c) perpendicular polarized configuration.

Equations (1)

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nair sin θ0=nGaN sin θ1=nsapphire sin θ2.

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