Abstract

A scatterometer capable of plane-of-incidence bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths between 58.4 and 121.6 nm has been developed. This instrument has a lower measurement limit of approximately 10-5 sr-1, and it is able to accommodate angles of incidence between 10° and 75°. The scatterometer can measure scatter to within 1.5° of the specular beam, and the scatter angle can be measured to within 0.1°. The design, analysis, and performance of this instrument are discussed here. Scatter data, in the form of BRDF measurements, are presented for a 3000-line/mm grating and a flat chemical vapor deposited diamond sample.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).
  6. R. J. Castonguay, “A new generation high speed, high resolution, hemispherical scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 152–165 (1993).
  7. R. J. Castonguay, T. D. Ferguson, “Accuracy and repeatability results of OMNISCATR, a high speed, high resolution, three dimensional scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 74–82 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Vernold, “Application and verification of wavelength scaling for near specular scatter prediction,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 18–30 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  19. J. M. Elson, V. Rehn, J. M. Bennett, V. O. Jones, “Measurement of angle resolved light scattering from optical surfaces in the 75 to 750 eV range,” in Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation, M. R. Howells, ed., Proc. SPIE315, 193–201 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Mattsson, S. Johansson, “Quality control and ageing tests on replicated, Al/MgF2 coated aspheric mirrors for the far UV,” in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE652, 124–133 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. T. Saha, D. B. Leviton, “Theoretical and measured encircled energy and wide angle scatter of SUMER demonstration telescope mirror in FUV,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, ed., Proc. SPIE1945, 398–409 (1993).
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  33. M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, “System for simultaneous count/current measurement with a dual-mode photon/particle detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 438–442 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, Channeltron Electron Multiplier Handbook for Mass Spectrometry Applications (Galileo Electro-Optics Corporation, Sturbridge, Mass., 1991).
  35. T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, “BRDF round robin,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 226–235 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, J. Reilly, “Results of a CO2 BRDF round robin,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 444 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, Kuha, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication).
  38. M. P. Newell, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “BRDF of diffuse EUV scatterers and EUV baffle materials,” to be published in Appl. Opt.
  39. M. P. Newell, L. A. Whitlock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. J. Jackson, “Extreme ultraviolet scatter from particulate contaminated mirrors,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 174–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, “System for simultaneous count/current measurement with a dual-mode photon/particle detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 438–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

H. Hogrefe, R. Haelbich, C. Kunz, “Specular and diffuse reflection of soft x-rays from mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 198–202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the finish of diamond-turned metal surfaces by differential light scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360–374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. P. Young, “Low-scatter mirror degradation by particle contamination,” Opt. Eng. 15, 516–520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

Bennett, J. M.

L. Mattsson, J. Ingers, J. M. Bennett, “Wavelength dependence of angle-resolved scattering in the extreme-ultraviolet-visible region,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3523–3532 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Elson, V. Rehn, J. M. Bennett, V. O. Jones, “Measurement of angle resolved light scattering from optical surfaces in the 75 to 750 eV range,” in Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation, M. R. Howells, ed., Proc. SPIE315, 193–201 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bochsler, P.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Breault, R. P.

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview in 1988,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 2–9 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview of the 1980 decade (and a peek into the future),” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1331, 2–11 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, L. D.

L. D. Brooks, “Microprocessor-based instrumentation for BRDF measurement from visible to FIR,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1982).

Butler, J. J.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

Cady, F. M.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

Canfield, L. R.

Castonguay, R. J.

R. J. Castonguay, “A new generation high speed, high resolution, hemispherical scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 152–165 (1993).

R. J. Castonguay, T. D. Ferguson, “Accuracy and repeatability results of OMNISCATR, a high speed, high resolution, three dimensional scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 74–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheever, D. R.

J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the finish of diamond-turned metal surfaces by differential light scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360–374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Residual surface roughness of diamond-turned optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788–1795 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, V. Rehn, J. M. Bennett, V. O. Jones, “Measurement of angle resolved light scattering from optical surfaces in the 75 to 750 eV range,” in Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation, M. R. Howells, ed., Proc. SPIE315, 193–201 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Enke, C. G.

M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, “System for simultaneous count/current measurement with a dual-mode photon/particle detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 438–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, Channeltron Electron Multiplier Handbook for Mass Spectrometry Applications (Galileo Electro-Optics Corporation, Sturbridge, Mass., 1991).

Ferguson, T. D.

R. J. Castonguay, T. D. Ferguson, “Accuracy and repeatability results of OMNISCATR, a high speed, high resolution, three dimensional scatterometer,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 74–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Glenn, D.

Haelbich, R.

H. Hogrefe, R. Haelbich, C. Kunz, “Specular and diffuse reflection of soft x-rays from mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 198–202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey, “Light-scattering characteristics of optical surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1976).

Heaney, J. B.

J. B. Heaney, Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2 (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995) pp. 37.23–37.29.

Hogrefe, H.

H. Hogrefe, C. Kunz, “Soft x-ray scattering from rough surfaces: experimental and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2851–2859 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hogrefe, R. Haelbich, C. Kunz, “Specular and diffuse reflection of soft x-rays from mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 198–202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Hunter, W. R.

Hutchings, J. B.

Ingers, J.

Jackson, J. J.

M. P. Newell, L. A. Whitlock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. J. Jackson, “Extreme ultraviolet scatter from particulate contaminated mirrors,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 174–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

Jelinsky, S.

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the finish of diamond-turned metal surfaces by differential light scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360–374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, S.

L. Mattsson, S. Johansson, “Quality control and ageing tests on replicated, Al/MgF2 coated aspheric mirrors for the far UV,” in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE652, 124–133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. C.

Johnston, R. G.

Jones, V. O.

J. M. Elson, V. Rehn, J. M. Bennett, V. O. Jones, “Measurement of angle resolved light scattering from optical surfaces in the 75 to 750 eV range,” in Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation, M. R. Howells, ed., Proc. SPIE315, 193–201 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

M. P. Newell, L. A. Whitlock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. J. Jackson, “Extreme ultraviolet scatter from particulate contaminated mirrors,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 174–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, Kuha, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication).

M. P. Newell, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “BRDF of diffuse EUV scatterers and EUV baffle materials,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Kirchner, K. H.

J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, M. W.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

Kristo, M. J.

M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, “System for simultaneous count/current measurement with a dual-mode photon/particle detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 438–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kristo, C. G. Enke, Channeltron Electron Multiplier Handbook for Mass Spectrometry Applications (Galileo Electro-Optics Corporation, Sturbridge, Mass., 1991).

Kunz, C.

H. Hogrefe, C. Kunz, “Soft x-ray scattering from rough surfaces: experimental and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2851–2859 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hogrefe, R. Haelbich, C. Kunz, “Specular and diffuse reflection of soft x-rays from mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 198–202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, T. A.

T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, “BRDF round robin,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 226–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, J. Reilly, “Results of a CO2 BRDF round robin,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 444 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D. B.

T. T. Saha, D. B. Leviton, D. Glenn, “Performance of ion-figured SiC SUMER telescope mirror in VUV,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1742–1750 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Saha, D. B. Leviton, “Theoretical and measured encircled energy and wide angle scatter of SUMER demonstration telescope mirror in FUV,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, ed., Proc. SPIE1945, 398–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Madden, R. P.

Mattsson, L.

L. Mattsson, J. Ingers, J. M. Bennett, “Wavelength dependence of angle-resolved scattering in the extreme-ultraviolet-visible region,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3523–3532 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mattsson, “Instrument for angle-resolved measurement of scattered light in the VUV-visible wavelength region,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, H. E. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE525, 189–196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. Mattsson, S. Johansson, “Quality control and ageing tests on replicated, Al/MgF2 coated aspheric mirrors for the far UV,” in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE652, 124–133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morbey, C.

Newell, M. P.

M. P. Newell, L. A. Whitlock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. J. Jackson, “Extreme ultraviolet scatter from particulate contaminated mirrors,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 174–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Newell, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “BRDF of diffuse EUV scatterers and EUV baffle materials,” to be published in Appl. Opt.

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Pantoliano, M.

T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, J. Reilly, “Results of a CO2 BRDF round robin,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 444 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, “BRDF round robin,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 226–235 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rehn, V.

J. M. Elson, V. Rehn, J. M. Bennett, V. O. Jones, “Measurement of angle resolved light scattering from optical surfaces in the 75 to 750 eV range,” in Reflecting Optics for Synchrotron Radiation, M. R. Howells, ed., Proc. SPIE315, 193–201 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, J.

T. A. Leonard, M. Pantoliano, J. Reilly, “Results of a CO2 BRDF round robin,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 444 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Rifkin, J.

J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Saha, T. T.

T. T. Saha, D. B. Leviton, D. Glenn, “Performance of ion-figured SiC SUMER telescope mirror in VUV,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1742–1750 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Saha, D. B. Leviton, “Theoretical and measured encircled energy and wide angle scatter of SUMER demonstration telescope mirror in FUV,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, ed., Proc. SPIE1945, 398–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Schiff, T. F.

J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

Scholze, F.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

J. C. Stover, J. Rifkin, D. R. Cheever, K. H. Kirchner, T. F. Schiff, “Comparison of wavelength scaling data to experiment,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 44–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vernold, C. L.

C. L. Vernold, “Application and verification of wavelength scaling for near specular scatter prediction,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 18–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whitlock, L. A.

M. P. Newell, L. A. Whitlock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. J. Jackson, “Extreme ultraviolet scatter from particulate contaminated mirrors,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 174–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. J.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatterometer,” in Optical Scattering: Applications, Measurement, and Theory II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1995, 121–130 (1993).

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe, “Incident angle invariance in surface scatter,” in Scatter from Optical Components, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE1165, 10–17 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. P.

R. P. Young, “Low-scatter mirror degradation by particle contamination,” Opt. Eng. 15, 516–520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the finish of diamond-turned metal surfaces by differential light scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360–374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Residual surface roughness of diamond-turned optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788–1795 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurbuchen, T.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

H. Hogrefe, R. Haelbich, C. Kunz, “Specular and diffuse reflection of soft x-rays from mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 198–202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of scatterometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of detector showing circuit details and typical settings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot showing the effect on stray light of successive modifications to the sample chamber at λ = 121.6 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BRDF distribution for a 3000-line/mm ruled Al grating at 30° angle of incidence and for λ = 121.6 nm. The full 6.35-mm-diameter detector aperture was used for these measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Instrument signature of the scatterometer at 121.6 and 58.4 nm. A 6.35-mm-diameter detector aperture was used.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BRDF distribution plotted against angle from specular for a CVD diamond sample measured at 121.6 nm and θ i = 15 deg. The adjusted instrument signature is also shown for comparison purposes. A 6.35-mm-diameter detector aperture was used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BRDF distribution plotted against |β–β0| for a CVD diamond sample measured at 121.6 nm and θ i = 15°. The adjusted instrument signature is also shown for comparison purposes. A 6.35-mm-diameter detector aperture was used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A comparison of the near specular scatter with the adjusted instrument signature. The scatter measurement was made at 121.6 nm and θ i = 15° A 100-µm slit aperture was used in front of the detector.

Equations (5)

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BRDFθi, ϕi, θs, ϕs=dPs/dΩsPi cos θs,
ΔBRDFBRDFΔPsPs+ΔP0P0+ΔΩΩ,
ΔBRDFBRDFΔPP+ΔΩΩ.
ΔPPΔPNU+2ΔPD+ΔPNL+ΔPCON=±0.30.
ΔPP+ΔΩΩ=0.34,

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