Abstract

We report a new material combination, C/Si, for normal-incidence multilayer mirrors in the wavelength region 25–30 nm. The multilayers, fabricated by ion-beam-sputtering deposition, were characterized by near-normal-incidence reflectance measurements by using a discharge source and a grazing-incidence monochromator. The highest measured near-normal-incidence reflectance was R = 23% (25.6 nm), R = 20% (28.3 nm), R = 25% (30.4 nm) at incident angles of 10°, 12°, and 4°, respectively. The multilayers were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which revealed sharp layer interfaces and low interfacial roughness.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).
  4. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. L. Windt, “XUV optical constants of single-crystal GaAs and sputtered C, Si, Cr3C2, Mo, and W,” Appl. Opt. 30, 15–25 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. P. McCaffrey, “Improved TEM samples of semiconductors prepared by a small-angle cleavage technique,” Microsc. Res. Technol. 24, 180–184 (1993).
    [Crossref]

1994 (3)

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. P. McCaffrey, “Improved TEM samples of semiconductors prepared by a small-angle cleavage technique,” Microsc. Res. Technol. 24, 180–184 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[Crossref]

Denham, P.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

Falco, C. M.

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hills, C. R.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Krumrey, M.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lucatorto, T. B.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCaffrey, J. P.

J. P. McCaffrey, “Improved TEM samples of semiconductors prepared by a small-angle cleavage technique,” Microsc. Res. Technol. 24, 180–184 (1993).
[Crossref]

Medower, B. S.

Mirone, A.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mueller, P.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schulze, D. W.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Slaughter, J. M.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stalio, R.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tarrio, C.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

Watts, R. N.

J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, C. M. Falco, “Si/B4C narrow-bandpass mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1786–1788 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Appl. Opt. (1)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions, photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection, E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–343 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

Microsc. Res. Technol. (1)

J. P. McCaffrey, “Improved TEM samples of semiconductors prepared by a small-angle cleavage technique,” Microsc. Res. Technol. 24, 180–184 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,283–16,288 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical maximum reflectance of an ideal N = 100-period multilayer stack for various material combinations, including Si or Al as a spacer. The calculations were performed with scattering factors from Henke et al. (Ref. 4) [updated by Gullikson et al. (Ref. 5)], indicated by solid curves, and with optical constants from Windt (Ref. 6), shown at three wavelengths for C/Si only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical spectra of reflectance measurements: (a) Monochromator is set on a line of interest (each channel corresponds to 40 seconds). (b) Monochromator scans a line of interest (each channel corresponds to 4 s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM cross-sectional micrographs of the multilayer 001: a, micrograph showing the total number of layers fabricated; b, higher magnification micrograph revealing layer interfacial structure. Darker bands correspond to Si layers and lighter bands to C layers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Results of Reflectance Measurements

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rf=rt+rb exp-iδ1+rtrb exp-iδ,

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