Abstract

The electronic speckle pattern interferometer in the double-pulse addition mode can be used to measure physical parameters in unstable environmental conditions. Owing to additive optical noise, however, the fringe patterns obtained have poor contrast. Some methods that use subtraction of addition double-pulsed fringe patterns improve fringe visibility but impose a limitation in measurement time ranges. To increase this range, to be limited by only the pulse separation, the contrast enhancement of double-pulsed addition-fringe patterns with a spatial filter based on local-standard-deviation measurements is investigated. Computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).
  3. D. Kerr, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 820–826 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Shellabear, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Processing of addition and subtraction fringes from pulsed ESPI for the study of vibrations,” in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, Md., 1990), pp. 238–244.
  5. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez Lépez, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Gonzalez, P. C. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), pp. 398–402.

1996

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez Lépez, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

Gonzalez, R.

R. Gonzalez, P. C. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), pp. 398–402.

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, D.

D. Kerr, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).

Mendoza Santoyo, F.

D. Kerr, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).

M. C. Shellabear, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Processing of addition and subtraction fringes from pulsed ESPI for the study of vibrations,” in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, Md., 1990), pp. 238–244.

Moore, A. J.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez Lépez, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Lépez, C.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez Lépez, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pérez López, C.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shellabear, M. C.

M. C. Shellabear, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Processing of addition and subtraction fringes from pulsed ESPI for the study of vibrations,” in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, Md., 1990), pp. 238–244.

Tyrer, J. R.

D. Kerr, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).

M. C. Shellabear, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Processing of addition and subtraction fringes from pulsed ESPI for the study of vibrations,” in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, Md., 1990), pp. 238–244.

West, T. C.

F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).

Wintz, P. C.

R. Gonzalez, P. C. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), pp. 398–402.

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez Lépez, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Gonzalez, P. C. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), pp. 398–402.

M. C. Shellabear, F. Mendoza Santoyo, J. R. Tyrer, “Processing of addition and subtraction fringes from pulsed ESPI for the study of vibrations,” in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Baltimore, Md., 1990), pp. 238–244.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Mendoza Santoyo, D. Kerr, J. R. Tyrer, T. C. West, “A novel approach to whole field vibration analysis using a pulsed laser system,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE1136, pp. 335–345 (1989).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computer-generated addition-fringe pattern and enhancements: (a) speckle pattern, where α = 0 and φ = 2π(2) (x 2 + y 2); (b) threshold; (c) local averaging; (d) Sobel; (e) variance filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Out-of-plane addition fringe pattern: (a) metal plate vibrating at 320 Hz, (b) threshold, (c) local averaging, (d) Sobel, (e) variance, (f) electronic filters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fringe Contrast for the Methods Described: Threshold, Local Average, Gradient, and Variance Filtersa

Equations (11)

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I1x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+2Iox, yIrx, y cosψx, y,
I2=Io+Ir+2 IoIrcosψ+φ+α,
A=2Io+Ir+4IoIrcosψ+φ2+α2cosφ2+α2.
C=Imax-IminImax+Imin,
φx, y=2π2x2+y2,  x<1, y<1.
Aa=A-aif A>a0if Aa,
As=A-Am×n,
Ag=Axî+Ayĵ,
Ag=Ax2+Ay21/2.
Avx, y=-mm-nnAx+m, y+n-Am×n,
Avx, y=-mm-nnAx+m, y+n-Am×n2Am×n,

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