Abstract

We report on thin-film photodetectors optimized for detecting the vacuum UV and rejection of the visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. The devices are made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and silicon carbide on a glass substrate. At room temperature the photodetectors exhibit quantum efficiencies of 52% at λ = 58.4 nm, 1% at λ = 400 nm, and 0.1% at λ = 650 nm. The response time for UV pulses from an N2 laser gives signals of 6-µs full width at half-maximum and 500-ns rise time.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plated detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.
  4. V. Kumar, A. K. Datta, “Vacuum ultraviolet scintillators: sodium salicylite and p-terpheyl,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1414–1417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. M. Burton, B. A. Powell, “Fluorescence of tetraphenil-butadiene in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 87–89 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).
  8. J. R. Fieberg, R. S. Muller, “Pair-production energies in silicon and germanium bombarded with low-energy electrons,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3202–3208 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

1979 (2)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

J. R. Fieberg, R. S. Muller, “Pair-production energies in silicon and germanium bombarded with low-energy electrons,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3202–3208 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bemporad, E.

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blouke, M.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burton, W. M.

Chen, K.-H.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Collins, S.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Corrie, B.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Datta, A. K.

de Cesare, G.

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, T.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. K.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Fieberg, J. R.

J. R. Fieberg, R. S. Muller, “Pair-production energies in silicon and germanium bombarded with low-energy electrons,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3202–3208 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fraschetti, G.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Galecka, A.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Galluzzi, F.

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guattari, G.

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gumming, M. A.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.

Hwang, S.-B.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Iorio, V.

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, F.

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janesick, J.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jannitti, E.

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kolenda, J.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

Kuo, L.-C.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Leo, G.

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-R.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Marsh, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.

Muller, R. S.

J. R. Fieberg, R. S. Muller, “Pair-production energies in silicon and germanium bombarded with low-energy electrons,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3202–3208 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, P.

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palma, F.

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petrauskas, M.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Powell, B. A.

Schwarz, R.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.

Stock, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.

Tsai, M.-J.

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

Tucci, M.

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vincenzoni, R.

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Weinert, H.

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

Wiza, J. L.

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plated detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. de Cesare, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, E. Jannitti, P. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, “Amorphous silicon–silicon carbide photodiodes with excellent sensitivity and selectivity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 335–337 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diam. Related Mater. (1)

G. de Cesare, F. Galluzzi, G. Guattari, G. Leo, R. Vincenzoni, E. Bemporad, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of wide band gap amorphous carbon–silicon alloys,” Diam. Related Mater. 2, 773–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Y. K. Fang, S.-B. Hwang, K.-H. Chen, C.-R. Liu, M.-J. Tsai, L.-C. Kuo, “An amorphous SiC/Si heterojunction p–i–n diode for low-noise and high-sensitivity UV detector,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-39, 292–296 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Fieberg, R. S. Muller, “Pair-production energies in silicon and germanium bombarded with low-energy electrons,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3202–3208 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

G. de Cesare, V. Iorio, F. Irrera, F. Palma, M. Tucci, “Amorphous silicon UV photodetectors with rejection of the visible spectrum,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 198–200, 1198–1201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plated detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gumming, J. Stock, D. Marsh, “Microchannel imaging detectors for the ultraviolet,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detection for Space Instrumentation, (European Space Agency, Paris Cedex, 1992), pp. 89–96.

J. Janesick, T. Elliot, G. Fraschetti, S. Collins, M. Blouke, B. Corrie, “Charge-coupled device pinning technologies,” in Optical Sensors and Electronic Photography, M. M. Blouke, D. Pophal, eds., Proc. SPIE1071, 153–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Weinert, M. Petrauskas, J. Kolenda, A. Galecka, F. Wang, R. Schwarz, “Ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a-SiC:H alloys in steady state and transient grating measurements,” in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), Vol. 297, pp. 497–503.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a-Si/SiC:H photodiode. The structure is: electrode/pin/electrode with a transparent conductive oxide as the bottom electrode and aluminum as the top electrode. The thicknesses of the semiconductor layers are also indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used in the 58–250-nm spectral range for absolute QE measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute values of the QE of the unbiased photodetector scaled to the total area of the device.

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