Abstract

A spectroscopic method of monitoring the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio vertical profile from space is described. An experimental design is presented for a solar occultation mode with the O2 A band in the visible region to retrieve pressure and temperature profiles first, and then several CO2 bands in the infrared region at 4.3, 2.7, and 2.0 µm to obtain CO2 mixing ratio profiles. Instrument techniques considered are low resolution Fourier transform spectrometry and radiometry of various bandwidths. Simulations indicate that the precision of the pressure, temperature, and CO2 mixing ratio measurements for an altitude region 30–10 km are less than 1%, 1 K, and 1%, respectively, for the case of the Fourier transform spectrometer and approximately 1%, 1 K, and 2% for the case of the radiometer. With careful experimental design, measurements can be made with better precision and also can extend below 10 km. This inferred precision of CO2 may be considered to be good enough for investigating atmospheric dynamics when CO2 is used as a tracer and also for measuring spatial and temporal variations of CO2 mixing ratios in the range of 0.5–6.5% of 350 parts per million by volume in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1996 (5)

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D6) (1996).

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20) (1995).

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).

1994 (2)

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (7)

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Hall, M. J. Prather, “Simulations of the trend and annual cycle in stratospheric CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,573–10,581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(12) (1993).

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, “Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5151–5172 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

J. H. Park, “Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2604–2613 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Anderson, J. G.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, S.

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Araki, N.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barron, E. J.

E. J. Barron, D. Hartman, D. Schimel, M. Shoeberl, Earth Observing System: Science contributions to national goals and interests (Earth System Science Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

Benner, D. C.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bertiger, W. I.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bishof, W.

W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blavier, J-F.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boering, K. A.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, R.

W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

Chu, W. P.

W. P. Chu, J. C. Larsen, M. P. McCormick, “Pressure and temperature retrievals from the SAGE III/EOS measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 32–35.

Cicerone, R. J.

J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T. J.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, “Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5151–5172 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Daube, B. C.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deaver, L. E.

J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
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K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
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J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “Pressure sensing of the atmosphere by solar occultation using broadband CO2 absorption,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1950–1954 (1979).
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J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985).
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C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy from space: A preliminary report on the results of the atmospheric trace molecule (ATMOS) experiment on Spacelab 3,” (1986).

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C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fung, I. Y.

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
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J. Giroux, Bomem, Inc., (personal communication, 1996).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
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G. Guelachvile, “Distortions in Fourier spectra and diagnosis,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. A. Vanasse, ed., (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 2.
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J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
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T. M. Hall, M. J. Prather, “Simulations of the trend and annual cycle in stratospheric CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,573–10,581 (1993).
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Harries, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Barron, D. Hartman, D. Schimel, M. Shoeberl, Earth Observing System: Science contributions to national goals and interests (Earth System Science Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, W.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hintsa, E. J.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).

Johnson, D. G.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keim, E. R.

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991).
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M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klooster, S. A.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, B. C.

W. Bishof, R. Borchers, P. Fabian, B. C. Kruger, “Increased concentration and vertical distribution of carbon dioxide in the stratosphere,” Nature (London) 316, 708–710 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kursinski, E. R.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, A.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, J. C.

W. P. Chu, J. C. Larsen, M. P. McCormick, “Pressure and temperature retrievals from the SAGE III/EOS measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 32–35.

Leroy, S. S.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowenstein, M.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M.

J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matson, P. A.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, A.

A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).

McCleese, D. J.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, J. C. Larsen, M. P. McCormick, “Pressure and temperature retrievals from the SAGE III/EOS measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 32–35.

McInerney, J. M.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meehan, T. K.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melbourne, W. G.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
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Miyashita, K.

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, H. A.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nagatani, R. N.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakajawa, T.

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, “Visible remote sensing algorithms for the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer aboard ADEOS satellite,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation Proceedings of IRS ’92, S. Keevallik, O. Karner, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1992), pp. 383–385.

Nakamura, K.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).

Nakazawa, T.

P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, “Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5151–5172 (1989).
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Nolt, I.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, B. Carli, “Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3490–3501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, “Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2604–2613 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, “Analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 835–849 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, M. A. H. Smith, “Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrow band radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2132–2139 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “Pressure sensing of the atmosphere by solar occultation using broadband CO2 absorption,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1950–1954 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, R. B.

R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Potter, C. S.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prather, M. J.

T. M. Hall, M. J. Prather, “Simulations of the trend and annual cycle in stratospheric CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,573–10,581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Randall, D.

A. S. Denning, I. Y. Fung, D. Randall, “Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota,” Nature (London) 376, 240–242 (1995).

Randerson, J. T.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy from space: A preliminary report on the results of the atmospheric trace molecule (ATMOS) experiment on Spacelab 3,” (1986).

Reber, C. A.

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Romans, L. J.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, L. E. Deaver, “Satellite confirmation of the dominance of chlorofluorocarbons in the global stratospheric chlorine budget,” Nature (London) 379, 526–528 (1996).

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, M. A. H. Smith, “Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrow band radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2132–2139 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, S. R. Drayson, “Pressure sensing of the atmosphere by solar occultation using broadband CO2 absorption,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1950–1954 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasano, Y.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, “Visible remote sensing algorithms for the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer aboard ADEOS satellite,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation Proceedings of IRS ’92, S. Keevallik, O. Karner, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1992), pp. 383–385.

Schiller, C.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schimel, D.

E. J. Barron, D. Hartman, D. Schimel, M. Shoeberl, Earth Observing System: Science contributions to national goals and interests (Earth System Science Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

Schmidt, U.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, J. T.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shoeberl, M.

E. J. Barron, D. Hartman, D. Schimel, M. Shoeberl, Earth Observing System: Science contributions to national goals and interests (Earth System Science Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., 1995).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, M. A. H. Smith, “Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrow band radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2132–2139 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

T. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, “Visible remote sensing algorithms for the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer aboard ADEOS satellite,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation Proceedings of IRS ’92, S. Keevallik, O. Karner, eds., (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1992), pp. 383–385.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanii, J.

M. Suzuki, Y. Sasano, T. Ishigaki, N. Kimura, N. Araki, K. Nakamura, A. Kuze, J. Tanii, “Conceptual design study of ILAS-II onboard ADEOS-II, in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing III, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2553, 48–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tans, P. P.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, “Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and an atmospheric transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5151–5172 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thoning, K. W.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, C. L.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. A. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, “Temperature sounding from the absorption spectrum of CO2 at 4.3 µm,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2661–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Traub, W. A.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vitousek, P. M.

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waterman, L. S.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weinstock, E. M.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yunck, T. P.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using GPS,” Science 271, 1107–1109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zipf, E. C.

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

A. Matsuzaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Itoh, “Rocket observation of the rotational profile of the A-band absorption spectrum of atmospheric oxygen molecule,” Ann. Geophys. 4, 475–480 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (7)

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(12) (1993).

J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, P. J. Crutzen, “HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 719–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pierce, W. L. Grose, J. M. Russell, A. F. Tuck, “Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 213–216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Lowenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer–tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, E. J. Hintsa, S. C. Wofsy, J. G. Anderson, B. C. Daube, A. E. Dessler, M. Lowenstein, M. P. McCormick, J. R. Podolske, E. M. Weinstock, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2737–2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, S. A. Klooster, “Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 811–841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20) (1995).

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

American Geophysical Union, Special Issue on UARS, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D6) (1996).

J. H. Park, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, S. R. Drayson, D. C. Benner, J. M. McInerney, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J-F. Blavier, C. R. Webster, E. C. Zipf, P. Erdman, U. Schmidt, C. Schiller, “Validation of Halogen Occultation Experiment CH4 measurements from the UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,183–10,203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. E. Deaver, M. Luo, R. J. Cicerone, J. H. Park, L. L. Gordley, G. C. Toon, M. R. Gunson, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, R. Zander, I. Nolt, “Validation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the HALOE experiment from the UARS platform,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,163–10,174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, J. H. Park, “Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067–1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22,831–22,855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Percentage change of CO2 line intensity per unit degree at temperature T for various E″ values.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line intensity and E″ versus wave number in the visible O2 A band. Lines with E″ > 900 cm-1 are shown as dotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTS simulations at z = 29 km tangent altitude for T at a nominal value and at nominal value +10 K for the maximum optical path difference L = 100 cm. The difference between the two is shown in the lower frame; the negative value indicates increased absorption for the 10 K increase. The height of a tick mark at the top is proportional to the line intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line intensity and E″ versus wave number in the CO2 4.3-µm region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FTS simulation at z = 29-km tangent altitude for L = 50 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line intensity and E″ versus wave number in the CO2 2.7-µm region.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FTS simulation at z = 29-km tangent altitude for L = 50 cm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line intensity and E″ versus wave number in the CO2 2.0-µm region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

FTS simulation at z = 29-km tangent altitude for L = 50 cm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Retrieved p and T profiles from the visible FTS spectra (L = 10 cm and spectral interval 13,160–13,165.5 cm-1) with the NLSF technique. Results are shown as a mean (solid curve) of seven profile retrieval errors, and s.d. values (dotted curve) are added on each side of the mean profile.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Retrieved CO2 χ profiles from five spectral intervals of the infrared FTS spectra (L = 10 cm). Two spectral intervals for the first two CO2 bands are selected to cover different altitude regions. The top interval is indicated as heavy curves and dots with the open triangle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Retrieved p and T profiles from the radiometric measurements in the visible channel with 1-cm-1 bandwidth. The first frame has two groups of p results that are obtained from the weak (bottom) and strong line channels (top, marked with the open triangle). Each profile is a mean of three narrow-band (1-cm-1-wide) channels.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Retrieved CO2 χ profiles from the radiometric measurements in the infrared regions. Each profile is a mean of multiple narrow-band (5-cm-1-wide) channels. The first frame is an average of eight channels within the interval indicated, the second frame is an average of seven channels, and the last frame is an average of five channels. Each channel is selected to cover a certain altitude region that gives a better result.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retrieved CO2 χ profiles from the radiometric measurement in the CO2 4.3-µm region. This channel has a 40-cm-1-wide bandwidth from 2230 to 2270 cm-1. The profile is an average of 14 retrievals.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Latitude versus longitude cross section of solar occultation events (for HALOE in orbit inclination of 57°), 1–31 March 1995. Occultation points are indicated by ○ (sunrise) and + (sunset).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Total number of occultation events (15 each for sunset and sunrise per day) at the lowest altitude at which HALOE made measurements during 1995. Measurements at 4–7 km were made for nearly 200 days.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 FTS Simulation Results for p, T, and CO2 χ with the NLSF Technique for the Maximum Optical Path Difference L = 10 cma

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Table 2 Radiometric Simulation Results for p, T, and CO2 χa

Equations (3)

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τ=Nz/No= Ψ  Iνfν exp-kνpχdldν×dθdϕ/ Ψ Iνfνdνdθdϕ,
ST=SToTo/Tnexp-1.439E1/T-1/To,
feff=1-0.7δ/L+nδ/L,

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