Abstract

A numerical model evaluating the response of a typical integrating nephelometer is described. The model incorporates the actual scattering geometry as well as the effects of a finite light source, detector size, and a nonideal Lambertian diffuser. An angular scattering weighting function is introduced to provide a tractable approach in numerical calculations and easy application. Using established size distribution ensembles associated with a few representative aerosol types, we compare the calculated response of a real nephelometer with that of an ideal, or perfect, nephelometer. The results indicate that, frequently, the nephelometer-produced aerosol-scattering coefficient is of the order of 10–20% too small; but for some naturally occurring aerosols, the difference may be as large as 40–50%. For a multiple-wavelength nephelometer, the response model can be employed to estimate the expected error in the aerosol-scattering coefficients directly from the measurements themselves.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. S. Ensor, A. P. Waggoner, “Angular truncation error in the integrating nephelometer,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 481–487 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Rae, J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219–223 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Garland, J. B. Rae, “An integrating nephelometer for atmospheric studies and visibility warning devices,” J. Phys. E 3, 275–280 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, “Effect of aerosol size distribution on the accuracy of the integrating nephelometer,” J. Appl. Meteorl. 12, 184–186 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Heintzenberg, H. Quenzel, “On the effect of the loss of large particles on the determination of scattering coefficients with integrating nephelometers,” Atmos. Environ. 7, 503–507 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hasan, C. W. Lewis, “Integrating nephelometer response corrections for bimodal size distributions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2, 109–113 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, “Design and application of the integrating nephelometer: a review,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 987–1000 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1952), pp. 203–206.
  11. A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2765–2773 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Lindberg, J. B. Gillespie, “Kubelka-Munk optical properties of a barium sulfate white reflectance standard: a comment,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2627–2628 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, “Design and application of the integrating nephelometer: a review,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 987–1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Hasan, C. W. Lewis, “Integrating nephelometer response corrections for bimodal size distributions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2, 109–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1973 (2)

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, “Effect of aerosol size distribution on the accuracy of the integrating nephelometer,” J. Appl. Meteorl. 12, 184–186 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Quenzel, “On the effect of the loss of large particles on the determination of scattering coefficients with integrating nephelometers,” Atmos. Environ. 7, 503–507 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

D. S. Ensor, A. P. Waggoner, “Angular truncation error in the integrating nephelometer,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 481–487 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Rae, J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219–223 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Garland, J. B. Rae, “An integrating nephelometer for atmospheric studies and visibility warning devices,” J. Phys. E 3, 275–280 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. A.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. S.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boatman, J. F.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bodhaine, B. A.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, A.

Caldow, R.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, “Design and application of the integrating nephelometer: a review,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 987–1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Covert, D. S.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deluisi, J. J.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ensor, D. S.

D. S. Ensor, A. P. Waggoner, “Angular truncation error in the integrating nephelometer,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 481–487 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, G.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, K.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garland, J. A.

J. B. Rae, J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219–223 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Garland, J. B. Rae, “An integrating nephelometer for atmospheric studies and visibility warning devices,” J. Phys. E 3, 275–280 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Garvey, D. M.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Hansen, A. D. A.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, H.

H. Hasan, C. W. Lewis, “Integrating nephelometer response corrections for bimodal size distributions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2, 109–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, “Design and application of the integrating nephelometer: a review,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 987–1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Quenzel, “On the effect of the loss of large particles on the determination of scattering coefficients with integrating nephelometers,” Atmos. Environ. 7, 503–507 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, “Effect of aerosol size distribution on the accuracy of the integrating nephelometer,” J. Appl. Meteorl. 12, 184–186 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, B. D.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holm, R. L.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laucks, M. L.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. W.

H. Hasan, C. W. Lewis, “Integrating nephelometer response corrections for bimodal size distributions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2, 109–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, J. D.

Marshall, S. F.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Andazola, E.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, G. E. K.

G. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1952), pp. 203–206.

Ogren, R. A.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quant, F. R.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

J. Heintzenberg, H. Quenzel, “On the effect of the loss of large particles on the determination of scattering coefficients with integrating nephelometers,” Atmos. Environ. 7, 503–507 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rabinoff, R. A.

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, “Effect of aerosol size distribution on the accuracy of the integrating nephelometer,” J. Appl. Meteorl. 12, 184–186 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rae, J. B.

J. B. Rae, J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219–223 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Garland, J. B. Rae, “An integrating nephelometer for atmospheric studies and visibility warning devices,” J. Phys. E 3, 275–280 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, R. C.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sem, G. J.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, P. J.

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waggoner, A. P.

D. S. Ensor, A. P. Waggoner, “Angular truncation error in the integrating nephelometer,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 481–487 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wiedensohler, A.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Hasan, C. W. Lewis, “Integrating nephelometer response corrections for bimodal size distributions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2, 109–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Environ. (3)

D. S. Ensor, A. P. Waggoner, “Angular truncation error in the integrating nephelometer,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 481–487 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Rae, J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219–223 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Quenzel, “On the effect of the loss of large particles on the determination of scattering coefficients with integrating nephelometers,” Atmos. Environ. 7, 503–507 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. A (1)

B. A. Bodhaine, N. C. Ahlquist, R. C. Schnell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A 25, 2267–2276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorl. (1)

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, “Effect of aerosol size distribution on the accuracy of the integrating nephelometer,” J. Appl. Meteorl. 12, 184–186 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2)

J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, “Design and application of the integrating nephelometer: a review,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 987–1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, R. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 967–986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. M. Rosen, B. A. Bodhaine, J. F. Boatman, J. J. Deluisi, M. J. Post, Y. Kim, R. C. Schnell, P. J. Sheridan, D. M. Garvey, “Measured and calculated optical property profiles in the mixed layer and free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12,837–12,850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, G. Fernandez, E. Martinez-Andazola, B. D. Hinds, A. D. A. Hansen, K. Fuller, “Aerosol in the arid southwestern United States: measurements of mass loading, volatility, size distribution, absorption characteristics, black carbon content, and vertical structure to 7 km above sea level,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2651–2666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

J. A. Garland, J. B. Rae, “An integrating nephelometer for atmospheric studies and visibility warning devices,” J. Phys. E 3, 275–280 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1952), pp. 203–206.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic diagram of a typical nephelometer illustrating only basic geometric elements. The vertical arrows represent the critical aperture edges.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of a nephelometer model defining terms used in the basic response equation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of calculation showing the angular weighting function normalized by the sine of the scattering angle θ and adjusted to unity at θ = 90°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the actual and ideal nephelometer responses as a function of geometric mean particle radius (r g) for a log normal size distribution with a geometric standard deviation of σ g = 1.8 and indices of refraction 1.50 and 1.50–0.006i.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated nephelometer color ratio as a function of size for a log normal size distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the actual and ideal nephelometer responses as a function of calculated color ratio for three types of size distributions. See text for a description of the FRLAB and WSMR ensemble distributions that are bimodal log normal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but with the addition of an absorbing component in the index of refraction.

Equations (10)

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dC=I0fϕdA1d12 Sθ, rdA2 cos αd22nrdVdr,  dC=photonscm2 s srdΩesrcm2part srdΩcsr×partcm3 μmcm3 μm,
dCr=KGiθiSθi, rnrdr  summing over all θ bins or i,
Br=Sθ, rdΩ=2π 0π Sθ, rsin θdθ.
Br=GiθiSθi, r,  summing over all i,
dCr=KBrnrdr,
C=KBrnrdr.
Bn=C/CcAc=Ac/CcC.
Bp=Cp/CpcApc=Apc/CpcCp,
Sθi, air=Apc0.76+0.72 cos2 θ/4π.
Bn/Bp=C/CpCpc/Cc.

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