Abstract

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aeronomy Laboratory’s rapid tunable daylight differential absorption lidar system for monitoring ozone throughout the free troposphere is described. The system components are optimized to provide continuously and rapidly profiles of ozone, day or night, with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an absolute accuracy of ±10% to the tropopause under clear sky conditions. Routine observations of ozone with frequent error assessments are made by scanning wavelengths between 286 and 292 nm.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  37. A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
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  43. J. Harms, “Lidar return signals for coaxial and noncoaxial systems with central obstruction,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1559–1566 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
  45. M. P. Bristow, D. H. Bundy, A. G. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4437–4452 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  54. A. M. Bass, L. C. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. P. Jesson, D. L. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  55. D. C. Lowe, U. Schmidt, D. H. Ehalt, “A new technique for measuring tropospheric formaldehyde (CH2O),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 825–828 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  56. A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  57. D. Kley, J. W. Drummond, M. McFarland, S. C. Liu, “Tropospheric profiles of NOx,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3153–3161 (1981).
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  58. J. B. Burkholder, R. K. Talukdar, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22937–22948 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  59. B. J. Huebert, A. L. Lazrus, “Tropospheric gas-phases and particulate nitrate measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7322–7328 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  60. Shardanand, “Absorption cross sections of O2 and O4 between 2000 and 2800 Å,” Phys. Rev. 186, 5–9 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  61. M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, R. W. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  62. V. V. Zuev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Ptashnik, “Effect of variations in the atmospheric optical properties on the accuracy of lower-tropospheric ozone soundings in the UV,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 675–680 (1992).
  63. S. F. Luk’yanenko, T. I. Novakovkaya, I. N. Potapkin, “Investigation of absorption by water vapor in the region 265 … 350 nm with the help of a spectrophotometer based on the KSVU-12M spectroscopic system,” Atmos. Opt. 3, 1080–1082 (1990).
  64. B. A. Thompson, P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, “Ultraviolet absorption coefficients of CO2, CO, O2, H2O, N2O, NH3, NO, SO2, and CH4 between 1850 and 4000 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6431–6436 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  65. A. G. Hearn, “The absorption of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 932–940 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
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1995 (4)

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, “An improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bristow, D. H. Bundy, A. G. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4437–4452 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Langford, “Identification and correction of analog-to-digital converter nonlinearities and their implications for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8330–8340 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (5)

J. A. Sunnesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Logan, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: an analysis of ozonesonde data,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25553–25585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. De Backer, E. P. Visser, D. De Muer, D. P. J. Swart, “Potential for meteorological bias in ozone data sets resulting from the restricted frequency of measurement due to cloud cover,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1395–1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chameides, P. S. Kasibhatla, Y. Yienger, H. Levy, “Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production,” Science 264, 74–77 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

W.-C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implications of observed changes in ozone vertical distributions at middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1567–1570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, A. Ulitsky, D. I. Wardle, “Lidar measurements of the Arctic stratosphere,” Proc. IEEE 2049, 9–23 (1993).

J. B. Burkholder, R. K. Talukdar, A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, “Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22937–22948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

C. Weitkamp, O. Thomsen, P. Bisling, “Signal and reference wavelengths for the elimination of SO2 cross sensitivity in remote measurements of tropospheric ozone with lidar,” Laser Optoelektronik 24, 42–47 (1992).

R. Stolarski, R. Bojkov, L. Bishop, C. Zerefos, J. Staehlin, J. Zawodny, “Measured trends in stratospheric ozone,” Science 256, 342–349 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, M. Kotkamp, A. Bittar, J. D. Hamlin, “Solar ultraviolet spectroradiometry in New Zealand: instrumentation and spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6501–6509 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Zuev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Ptashnik, “Effect of variations in the atmospheric optical properties on the accuracy of lower-tropospheric ozone soundings in the UV,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 675–680 (1992).

1991 (2)

W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, S. Ismail, “Raman shifting of KrF laser radiation for tropospheric ozone measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2628–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1991).

1990 (5)

E. V. Browell, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, M. A. Fenn, S. A. Kooi, A. F. Carter, A. F. Tuck, O. B. Toon, M. H. Proffitt, M. Lowenstein, M. R. Schoeberl, I. Isakesen, G. Braathen, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere: ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 325–328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Luk’yanenko, T. I. Novakovkaya, I. N. Potapkin, “Investigation of absorption by water vapor in the region 265 … 350 nm with the help of a spectrophotometer based on the KSVU-12M spectroscopic system,” Atmos. Opt. 3, 1080–1082 (1990).

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, T. D. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303–3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. Lippmann, “Health effects of ozone: a critical review,” J. Air Waste Mange. Assoc. 39, 672–695 (1989).

1986 (2)

J. Pelon, S. Godin, G. Mégie, “Upper stratospheric (30–50 km) lidar observations of the ozone vertical distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 8667–8671 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Hilsenrath, W. Attmannspacher, A. Bass, W. Evans, R. Hagemeyer, R. A. Barnes, W. Komhyr, K. Mauersberger, J. Mentall, M. Proffitt, D. Robbins, S. Taylor, A. Torres, E. Weinstock, “Results from the balloon ozone intercomparison campaign (BOIC),” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13137–13152 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1984 (2)

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, R. W. Nicholls, “Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180–300 nm for temperatures to 3000K and pressures to 50 atm,” Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738–1751 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. Skarby, G. Sellden, “The effects of ozone on crops and forests,” Ambio 13, 68–72 (1984).

1983 (3)

1982 (1)

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Kley, J. W. Drummond, M. McFarland, S. C. Liu, “Tropospheric profiles of NOx,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3153–3161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (5)

B. J. Huebert, A. L. Lazrus, “Tropospheric gas-phases and particulate nitrate measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7322–7328 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bass, L. C. Glasgow, C. Miller, J. P. Jesson, D. L. Filkin, “Temperature dependent absorption cross sections for formaldehyde (CH2O): the effect of formaldehyde on stratospheric chlorine chemistry,” Planet. Space Sci. 28, 675–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Lowe, U. Schmidt, D. H. Ehalt, “A new technique for measuring tropospheric formaldehyde (CH2O),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 825–828 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Maroulis, A. L. Torres, A. B. Goldberg, A. R. Bandy, “Atmospheric SO2 measurements on Project Gametag,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7345–7349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173–1183 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

J. Harms, “Lidar return signals for coaxial and noncoaxial systems with central obstruction,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1559–1566 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fishman, S. Solomon, P. J. Crutzen, “Observational and theoretical evidence in support of a significant in-situ photochemical source of tropospheric ozone,” Tellus 31, 432–446 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzner, “A mid-latitude ozone model for the 1976 standard atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477–4481 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, “Photochemical reactions initiated by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air,” Tellus 26, 47–57 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1969 (2)

W. D. Komhyr, “Electrochemical concentration cells for gas analysis,” Ann. Geophys. 25, 203–210 (1969).

Shardanand, “Absorption cross sections of O2 and O4 between 2000 and 2800 Å,” Phys. Rev. 186, 5–9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. F. Danielsen, “Stratosphere-tropospheric exchange based upon radioactivity, ozone, and potential vorticity,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 502–518 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

B. A. Thompson, P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, “Ultraviolet absorption coefficients of CO2, CO, O2, H2O, N2O, NH3, NO, SO2, and CH4 between 1850 and 4000 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6431–6436 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

A. G. Hearn, “The absorption of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 78, 932–940 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abonnel, C.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. J.

Ancellet, G.

M. Beekmann, G. Ancellet, D. Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil, F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin, N. Fritz, E. Gizard, “Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by electrochemical sondes, a ground based lidar and an airborne UV-photometer,” Atmos. Environ. 29, 1027–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Multiwavelength lidar for ozone measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 467–476 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Mégie, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454–3463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. v. Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinger, Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX ’91, (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Apituley, A.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Ozone absorption spectrum between 240 and 340 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.025 nm. (b) Seasonally averaged vertical profiles of ozone concentration measured in situ during fall and spring balloon ascents in northern Colorado. The standard mid-latitude ozone profile of Krueger and Minzner is shown for comparison (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled springtime backscatter return signal intensity at FPO, normalized to the signal from 3.5 km ASL, as a function of altitude and wavelength. Dotted curves indicate modeled backscatter without ozone attenuation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled 1.6-µs (240-m) backscatter return signals from a hypothetical lidar configuration located at 3 km ASL and consisting of a 61-cm telescope viewing 3.2 mrad in the vertical, a detector with a quantum efficiency of 20%, and a UV laser with single-pulse output of 15 mJ. (a) Modeled backscatter return signals (no filter in place) are compared to detected solar background sky radiation (nm-1) as a function of altitude and wavelength. (b) Modeled return signals from (a) after passing through the solar-blind filter discussed in text and ratioed to the filtered, integrated sky background signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled shot noise as a function of altitude for the 286–291-nm and 288–291-nm wavelength pairs during (a) spring and (b) fall. The return signals are averaged for 110 s from a lidar configuration as in Fig. 3(b), and a range interval of 1 km is used (see Appendix A). Results are shown both for day (solid curves) and night (dotted curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeled ozone errors resulting from differential Rayleigh and Mie scattering before and after Rayleigh correction for the 286–292-nm wavelength pair. The Rayleigh-corrected curve represents the errors that are due to aerosols alone, whereas the +5% curve represents combined Rayleigh and Mie errors resulting from a 5% error in the air density profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Model calculations of the error in the measured ozone concentration for a constant signal ratio error of 0.5%. (b) Errors from (a) expressed as a percentage of the springtime ozone profile and plotted as a function of altitude and wavelength separation for λ a = 286 nm. (c) Same as (b) but for λ a = 288 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overall layout of the Fritz Peak Observatory RTD–DIAL system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Detector assemblies of the Fritz Peak Observatory RTD–DIAL system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Signal conditioning and acquisition schematic for the Fritz Peak Observatory RTD–DIAL system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Representative 110-s, 288-nm and 291-nm far-range data after the background data have been subtracted. (b) 288-nm data from (a) showing the results of baseline and SIB correction. (c) Near-range and far-range fully corrected data sets and joined data obtained by normalizing the near range to the far range at 16 µs. The peak signal-to-noise ratio for the joined data is 5 × 106, whereas the ratio is almost 2 × 107 if the 0.1-µs data are averaged over 1.6-µs (240-m) intervals.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison between actual instrument performance and the model results. The vertically averaged joined data from 286 and 292 nm are plotted against altitude and normalized as in Fig. 2. The 290-nm curve from Fig. 2 is included for the comparison.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of measured signal-to-sky ratios at 6 and 9 km ASL with those modeled and represented in Fig. 3(b). Differences of a factor of 2–3 are observed over our useful wavelength range, which is within the expected uncertainty due to solar and atmospheric variability.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of modeled daytime ozone shot-noise errors from Fig. 6 with the measured shot-noise errors for the 288–291-nm pair. Only data from the far-range detector are shown.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Data are from three independent profiles each acquired in 110 s with the FPO RTD-DIAL at approximately 11:30 a.m. local time on 16 April 1996. One profile represents the 288–291-nm wavelength pair, another uses the 286–291-nm wavelength pair, and the third is simply a 288-nm null profile. The profiles were calculated with a 1-km-range interval with a 240-m box average of the digitized data, and except as noted, all profiles are smoothed with a 960-m (4-point) running average to match the range interval. (a) Smoothed and unsmoothed null profiles of S (see text) along with the near-range and far-range shot noise. (b) The smoothed null profile of S from (a) along with the 286–291-nm and 288–291-nm profiles of S. (c) The signal ratio error profile for the null and for the combined signal ratio errors for the null and the 286–291-nm shot-noise errors. (d) Uncertainties in S arising from the null are compared with the 286–291-nm shot noise and combined to produce an overall measured uncertainty in S(heavy dark curve). (e) The combined uncertainty from (d) is compared with the same combined uncertainty for the 288–291-nm pair. (f) The Rayleigh-corrected ozone concentration profiles for both wavelength pairs are plotted along with ±5% error bars at 1-km intervals.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RTD-DIAL Detection System Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Errors for RTD-DIAL Measurements (in percent)a

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Table 3 Potential Molecular Interferents for RTD-DIAL Measurementsa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pa1Pw2Pa2Pw1
O3=12ΔRΔσS-B-E,
S=lnPa1Pw2Pa2Pw1,
O3=12ΔRΔσS-B-E,
S=lnPa1Pw2Pa2Pw1,
B=lnβa1βw2βa2βw1,
E=2nR1R2αanR-αwnRdR.
βijRjray=0.1173σiρRj,
αiRray=σiρRj
S*=i,jPij*Pij21/2,

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