Abstract

Conventional Michelson interferometers that are widely used for autocorrelation of ultrashort optical pulses are incapable of producing two identical replicas of an optical pulse, hence yielding a correct autocorrelation signal. The problem is acute when one records the interferometric autocorrelation of pulses consisting of just a few optical cycles. With the use of sub-10-fs pulses we demonstrate asymmetric autocorrelation traces recorded with a conventional Michelson interferometer, refer to previously reported results that exhibit the same deficiency, and elucidate the origin of the problem. A simple modification of the conventional interferometer configuration yields the correct fringe-resolved autocorrelation trace.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. P. Weber, “Method for pulsewidth measurement of ultra-short light pulses generated by phase-locked lasers using nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2231–2234 (1967); M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light burstd in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966); J. A. Armstrong, “Measurements of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-C. Diels, E. W. Van Stryland, D. Gold, “Investigation of the parameters affecting subpicosecond pulse duration of passively mode-locked dye laser,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Picosecond Phenomena, E. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 117–120; J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
  3. K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Yan, J.-C. Diels, “Amplitude and phase recording of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1259–1263 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Stingl, M. Lenzner, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, R. Szipöcs, “Sub-10-fs mirror-dispersion-controlled Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 602–604 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito-Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, R. Szipöcs, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser without the use of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 19, 204–206 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. F. Curley, Ch. Spielmann, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, E. Wintner, A. J. Schmidt, “Operation of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in the vicinity of zero group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18, 54–57 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 3, p. 55.
  10. C. P. J. Barty, B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon, “Generation, measurement and amplification of 20-fs high peak power pulses from a regeneratively initiated self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” in Ultrafast Pulse Generation and Sepctroscopy, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE1861, 6–30 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1967 (1)

H. P. Weber, “Method for pulsewidth measurement of ultra-short light pulses generated by phase-locked lasers using nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2231–2234 (1967); M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light burstd in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966); J. A. Armstrong, “Measurements of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

C. P. J. Barty, B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon, “Generation, measurement and amplification of 20-fs high peak power pulses from a regeneratively initiated self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” in Ultrafast Pulse Generation and Sepctroscopy, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE1861, 6–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Brabec, T.

Brito-Cruz, C. H.

Curley, P. F.

Diels, J.-C.

C. Yan, J.-C. Diels, “Amplitude and phase recording of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1259–1263 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Diels, E. W. Van Stryland, D. Gold, “Investigation of the parameters affecting subpicosecond pulse duration of passively mode-locked dye laser,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Picosecond Phenomena, E. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 117–120; J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).

Fork, R. L.

Gold, D.

J.-C. Diels, E. W. Van Stryland, D. Gold, “Investigation of the parameters affecting subpicosecond pulse duration of passively mode-locked dye laser,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Picosecond Phenomena, E. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 117–120; J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).

Gordon, C. L.

C. P. J. Barty, B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon, “Generation, measurement and amplification of 20-fs high peak power pulses from a regeneratively initiated self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” in Ultrafast Pulse Generation and Sepctroscopy, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE1861, 6–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 3, p. 55.

Krausz, F.

Lemoff, B. E.

C. P. J. Barty, B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon, “Generation, measurement and amplification of 20-fs high peak power pulses from a regeneratively initiated self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” in Ultrafast Pulse Generation and Sepctroscopy, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE1861, 6–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A. J.

Shank, C. V.

Spielmann, Ch.

Stingl, A.

Szipöcs, R.

Van Stryland, E. W.

J.-C. Diels, E. W. Van Stryland, D. Gold, “Investigation of the parameters affecting subpicosecond pulse duration of passively mode-locked dye laser,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Picosecond Phenomena, E. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 117–120; J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).

Weber, H. P.

H. P. Weber, “Method for pulsewidth measurement of ultra-short light pulses generated by phase-locked lasers using nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2231–2234 (1967); M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light burstd in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966); J. A. Armstrong, “Measurements of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wintner, E.

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, H. Yamada, “General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225–1233 (1989); “Time direction determination of a symmetic ultrashort optical pulses from second-harmonic generation auto-correlation signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1201–1202 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. P. Weber, “Method for pulsewidth measurement of ultra-short light pulses generated by phase-locked lasers using nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2231–2234 (1967); M. Maier, W. Kaiser, J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light burstd in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966); J. A. Armstrong, “Measurements of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984), Chap. 3, p. 55.

C. P. J. Barty, B. E. Lemoff, C. L. Gordon, “Generation, measurement and amplification of 20-fs high peak power pulses from a regeneratively initiated self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” in Ultrafast Pulse Generation and Sepctroscopy, T. R. Gosnell, A. J. Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE1861, 6–30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Diels, E. W. Van Stryland, D. Gold, “Investigation of the parameters affecting subpicosecond pulse duration of passively mode-locked dye laser,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Picosecond Phenomena, E. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978), pp. 117–120; J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of a standard collinear autocorrelation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FRAC of a sub-10-fs pulse measured with a standard autocorrelator. Note the minimum at zero delay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex amplitudes a j of incident and b i reflected waves on a beam splitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated FRAC traces of an 8-fs Gaussian pulse. The solid and dashed curves correspond to a phase difference of 0 and π, respectively. Both curves fit well to the same envelope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup of a symmetric collinear autocorrelator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FRAC of a sub-10-fs pulse measured with a symmetric autocorrelator. Note the maximum at zero delay, in comparison with Fig. 2.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b1ω=S11a1ω+S12a2ω,
b2ω=S21a1ω+S22a2ω,
Eoutω=S11ωexpiϕ1ω+S22ωexpiϕ2ωS12ω Einω,
φiiωφiiω0+φiiω0ω-ω0=αii+τiiω, i=1, 2.
Eoutω=expiϕ1ω]+expiϕ2ω×S11ωS12ωEinω,

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