Abstract

We present a novel, whole-field, noncontact profilometer based on real-time, two-color contour holography. A single 30-mW laser diode was used to record a hologram in a BaTiO3:Rh crystal, and the reconstructed image was interfered with the real-time object wave. Current modulation of the diode laser produced continuously tunable contour intervals. The resulting interferograms were processed by use of phase-shift interferometry algorithms to yield quantitative, three-dimensional measurements of the original object. We demonstrate submillimeter depth resolution and show how resolution and speed can be further improved.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 387.
  2. F. M. Kuchel, H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time contour holography using BSO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 17–21 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of infrared-sensitive rhodium-doped barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 19, 536–538 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, P. Andra, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” in Laser Interferometry VIII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2860, 2–13 (1996).
  7. K. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wavefront reconstruction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time holographic contour mapping with dye lasers,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. R. Robertson, ed. (Campbridge U. Press, Campbridge, 1976), pp. 353–373.
  9. D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds., Interferogram Analysis (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993).
  10. J. M. Huntley, H. Saldner, “Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3047–3052 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. M. Kuchel, H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time contour holography using BSO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 17–21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

K. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wavefront reconstruction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Andra, P.

W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, P. Andra, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” in Laser Interferometry VIII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2860, 2–13 (1996).

Buckberry, C.

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time holographic contour mapping with dye lasers,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. R. Robertson, ed. (Campbridge U. Press, Campbridge, 1976), pp. 353–373.

Haines, K.

K. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wavefront reconstruction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrand, B. P.

K. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wavefront reconstruction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Huntley, J. M.

Jones, J.

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Kuchel, F. M.

F. M. Kuchel, H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time contour holography using BSO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 17–21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time holographic contour mapping with dye lasers,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. R. Robertson, ed. (Campbridge U. Press, Campbridge, 1976), pp. 353–373.

Nadeborn, W.

W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, P. Andra, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” in Laser Interferometry VIII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2860, 2–13 (1996).

Nelson, C. C.

Osten, W.

W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, P. Andra, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” in Laser Interferometry VIII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2860, 2–13 (1996).

Pedrini, G.

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saldner, H.

Schwartz, R. N.

Silberberg, Y.

A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time holographic contour mapping with dye lasers,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. R. Robertson, ed. (Campbridge U. Press, Campbridge, 1976), pp. 353–373.

Tatam, P.

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

F. M. Kuchel, H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time contour holography using BSO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 17–21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 387.

Wechsler, B. A.

Zou, Y.

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. M. Kuchel, H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time contour holography using BSO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 17–21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, “Surface contouring in a video frame by changing the wavelength of a diode laser,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1074–1079 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Tatam, J. Davies, C. Buckberry, J. Jones, “Holographic surface contouring using wavelength modulation of laser diodes,” Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 317–321 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Haines, B. P. Hildebrand, “Contour generation by wavefront reconstruction,” Phys. Lett. 19, 10–11 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Y. Silberberg, “Real-time holographic contour mapping with dye lasers,” in The Engineering Uses of Coherent Optics, E. R. Robertson, ed. (Campbridge U. Press, Campbridge, 1976), pp. 353–373.

D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds., Interferogram Analysis (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993).

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), p. 387.

W. Osten, W. Nadeborn, P. Andra, “General hierarchical approach in absolute phase measurement,” in Laser Interferometry VIII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2860, 2–13 (1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-color contour profilometer using BaTiO3 and two-wave-mixing geometry. L1: f = 25.4 mm, d = 12 mm; L2: f = 160 mm, d = 40 mm; L3: f = 100 mm, d = 50 mm; L4: f = 100 mm, d = 50 mm; L5: f = 160 mm, d = 40 mm; L6: f = 31 mm, d = 16 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the test object. (b) Two-color holographic contour interferogram. (c) Wrapped phase map. (d) Reconstructed 3-D model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison measurements made with 2.1-mm (circles) and 7.1-mm (squares) contour intervals on a flat surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of the 0.75-in.-diameter cable with a V groove. (b) Wrapped phase map produced from a real-time profilometer. (c) Unwrapped phase map (the gray scale is equivalent to height). (d) Reconstructed 3-D model.

Equations (3)

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Δλ=λ2cβΔi,
Ix, y=Ax, y+Bx, ycos2πΔzx, yλs+ϕ,
λs=λ22Δλcos α=c2βΔicos α,

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