Abstract

A design for complete beam steering (in three dimensions) of one or two optical tweezers traps is presented. The two most important requirements for efficient and stable movement of an optical trap are identified. A detailed recipe for the construction of a movable optical tweezers trap that fulfills these requirements is given (exemplified with an inverted microscope). The system has been found to allow for precise and free movements of both traps in all three dimensions in a dual-trap optical tweezers configuration and to be robust and reliable, as well as forgiving of small misalignments in the optical system.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517–1520 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Buican, M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, J. C. Martin, “Automated single-cell manipulation and sorting by light trapping,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5311–5316 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  6. M. W. Berns, “Use of a laser induced optical force trap to study chromosome movement on the mitotic spindle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4539–4543 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  8. W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers: a new tool for biophysics,” in Noninvasive Techniques in Cell Biology, F. K. Foskett, S. Grinstein, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 375–402.
  11. S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).
  15. M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).
  16. M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. O. Greulich, G. Weber, “The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 167, 127–151 (1992).
  19. S. M. Block, “Making light work with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 360, 493–495 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  20. K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  24. K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. I. Angelova, B. Pouligny, “Trapping and levitation of a dielectric sphere with off-centered Gaussian beams: I. Experimental,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 261–276 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).
  27. R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, “Optical tweezers—Glasperlenspiel II,” Curr. Biol. 3, 309–311 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. H. Liang, M. W. Berns, “Study on cutting (optical scissors) and trapping (optical tweezers)chromosomes in living cell,” Laser Biol. 3, 481–488 (1994).
  30. H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).
  33. S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  34. K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications,” Cytometry 12, 486–491 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. Block, “Constructing optical tweezers,” in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Manual, D. Spector, R. Goldman, L. Leinwand, eds. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y., 1995).
  36. K. Svoboda, S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, M. W. Berns, “Study on cutting (optical scissors) and trapping (optical tweezers)chromosomes in living cell,” Laser Biol. 3, 481–488 (1994).

K. Svoboda, S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).

1993

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, “Optical tweezers—Glasperlenspiel II,” Curr. Biol. 3, 309–311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Angelova, B. Pouligny, “Trapping and levitation of a dielectric sphere with off-centered Gaussian beams: I. Experimental,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 261–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Greulich, G. Weber, “The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 167, 127–151 (1992).

S. M. Block, “Making light work with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 360, 493–495 (1992).
[PubMed]

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications,” Cytometry 12, 486–491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

M. W. Berns, “Use of a laser induced optical force trap to study chromosome movement on the mitotic spindle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4539–4543 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Buican, M. J. Smyth, H. A. Crissman, G. C. Salzman, C. C. Stewart, J. C. Martin, “Automated single-cell manipulation and sorting by light trapping,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5311–5316 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aist, J. R.

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, J.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelova, M. I.

M. I. Angelova, B. Pouligny, “Trapping and levitation of a dielectric sphere with off-centered Gaussian beams: I. Experimental,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 261–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asch, R. H.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aufderheide, K. J.

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bauder, U.

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

Berg, H. C.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
[PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

H. Liang, M. W. Berns, “Study on cutting (optical scissors) and trapping (optical tweezers)chromosomes in living cell,” Laser Biol. 3, 481–488 (1994).

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Berns, “Use of a laser induced optical force trap to study chromosome movement on the mitotic spindle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4539–4543 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
[PubMed]

Block, S. M.

K. Svoboda, S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Block, “Making light work with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 360, 493–495 (1992).
[PubMed]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
[PubMed]

S. M. Block, “Constructing optical tweezers,” in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Manual, D. Spector, R. Goldman, L. Leinwand, eds. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y., 1995).

S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers: a new tool for biophysics,” in Noninvasive Techniques in Cell Biology, F. K. Foskett, S. Grinstein, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 375–402.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications,” Cytometry 12, 486–491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buican, T. N.

Cheng, S.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clement-Sengewald, A.

K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).

Crissman, H. A.

Du, Q.

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Danasoure, I.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

Euteneuer, U.

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

Finer, J. T.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, “Optical tweezers—Glasperlenspiel II,” Curr. Biol. 3, 309–311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Futterman, G.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Greulich, K. O.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Greulich, G. Weber, “The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 167, 127–151 (1992).

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grzeschik, K. H.

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harim, A.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, W.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutter, K.-J.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krol, J. J.

K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leitz, G.

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, M. W. Berns, “Study on cutting (optical scissors) and trapping (optical tweezers)chromosomes in living cell,” Laser Biol. 3, 481–488 (1994).

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lietz, G.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. C.

Monajembashi, S.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Neev, J.

Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Numajiri, Y.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Olek, K.

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ord, T.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Ponelies, N.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

Pouligny, B.

M. I. Angelova, B. Pouligny, “Trapping and levitation of a dielectric sphere with off-centered Gaussian beams: I. Experimental,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 261–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Profeta, G.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieder, C. L.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E. D.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzman, G. C.

Sato-Maeda, M.

H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scheef, J.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliwa, M.

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

Schuetze, K.

K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).

Schutze, K.

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

Seeger, S.

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

Shimizu, S.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

Simmons, R. M.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, “Optical tweezers—Glasperlenspiel II,” Curr. Biol. 3, 309–311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smyth, M. J.

Sonek, G. J.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steubing, R. W.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C. C.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tadir, Y.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Tashiro, H.

H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, M.

H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vafa, O.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Visscher, K.

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications,” Cytometry 12, 486–491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Visser, K.

K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vorobjev, I. A.

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

Weber, G.

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Greulich, G. Weber, “The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 167, 127–151 (1992).

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weith, A.

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, L.

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

Wolfrum, J.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. H.

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.

K. Svoboda, S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Curr. Biol.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, “Optical tweezers—Glasperlenspiel II,” Curr. Biol. 3, 309–311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry

K. Visser, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by “multiple” optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, “Single beam optical trapping integrated in a confocal microscope for biological applications,” Cytometry 12, 486–491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K.-J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry 12, 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry 12, 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Genet.

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of nuclei in living paramecium-tetraurelia use of the laser optical force trap for developmental biology,” Dev. Genet. 13, 235–240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Cell Res.

M. W. Berns, J. R. Aist, W. H. Wright, H. Liang, “Optical trapping in animal and fungal cells using a tunable near-infrared titanium sapphire laser,” Exp. Cell Res. 198, 375–378 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of mitotic chromosomes in PTK-2 cells using laser-induced optical forces optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 197, 21–36 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, C. L. Rieder, E. D. Salmon, G. Profeta, J. Andrews, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, “Directed movement of chromosome arms and fragments in mitotic newt lung cells using optical scissors and optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 213, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liang, W. H. Wright, S. Cheng, W. He, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PTK2 cells using laser microsurgery optical scalpel in combination with laser-induced optical force optical tweezers,” Exp. Cell Res. 204, 110–120 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fertil. Steril.

K. Schuetze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, “Zone drilling and sperm insertion with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” Fertil. Steril. 61, 783–786 (1994).

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, T. Ord, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertil. Steril. 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, “Laser trapping in cell biology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2148–2157 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biotechnol.

N. Ponelies, J. Scheef, A. Harim, G. Lietz, K. O. Greulich, “Laser micromanipulators for biotechnology and genome research,” J. Biotechnol. 35, 109–120 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Eukaryotic Microbiol.

K. J. Aufderheide, Q. Du, E. S. Fry, “Directed positioning of micronuclei in paramecium tetraurelia with laser tweezers: absence of detectable damage after manipulation,” J. Eukaryotic Microbiol. 40, 793–796 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

K. O. Greulich, G. Weber, “The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 167, 127–151 (1992).

Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis)

K. O. Greulich, U. Bauder, S. Monajembashi, N. Ponelies, S. Seeger, J. Wolfrum, “Laser micro-beam and optical tweezers,” Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 36, 43–44 (1990); Labor 2000 (Supplement to Labor Praxis), 38, 46 (1990).

Lancet

Y. Tadir, J. Neev, M. W. Berns, “Laser micromanipulation of oocytes and sperm,” Lancet 339, 1424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Biol.

H. Liang, M. W. Berns, “Study on cutting (optical scissors) and trapping (optical tweezers)chromosomes in living cell,” Laser Biol. 3, 481–488 (1994).

Mol. Biol. Cell

M. W. Berns, H. Liang, W. H. Wright, I. A. Vorobjev, “Manipulation of chromosomes with optical scissors and tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 345A (1992).

M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, I. El Danasoure, L. Westphal, S. Shimizu, “Sperm motility studies with optical tweezers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 3, 9A (1992).

Nature (London)

A. Ashkin, K. Schutze, J. M. Dziedzic, U. Euteneuer, M. Schliwa, “Force generation of organelle transport measured in vivo by an infrared laser trap,” Nature (London) 348, 346–348 (1990).
[PubMed]

S. M. Block, “Making light work with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 360, 493–495 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using IR laser beams,” Nature (London) 330, 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature (London) 338, 514–518 (1989).
[PubMed]

Naturwissenschaften

G. Weber, S. Monajembashi, K. O. Greulich, J. Wolfrum, “Microperforation of plant tissue with a UV-lasermicrobeam and injection of DNA into cells,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 35–36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. Tashiro, M. Uchida, M. Sato-Maeda, “Three dimensional manipulator by means of optical trapping for the specification of cell-to-cell adhesion,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2812–2817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR

G. Leitz, G. Weber, S. Seeger, K. O. Greulich, “The laser microbeam trap as an optical tool for living cells,” Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR 26, 69–88 (1994).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. W. Berns, “Use of a laser induced optical force trap to study chromosome movement on the mitotic spindle,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4539–4543 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

M. I. Angelova, B. Pouligny, “Trapping and levitation of a dielectric sphere with off-centered Gaussian beams: I. Experimental,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 261–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somat Cell Mol. Genet.

G. Weber, A. Weith, R. Kaiser, K. H. Grzeschik, K. Olek, “Microdissection and microcloning of human chromsome 7q22-32 region,” Somat Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 123–128 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. M. Block, “Optical tweezers: a new tool for biophysics,” in Noninvasive Techniques in Cell Biology, F. K. Foskett, S. Grinstein, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 375–402.

S. M. Block, “Constructing optical tweezers,” in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Manual, D. Spector, R. Goldman, L. Leinwand, eds. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y., 1995).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout for a dual-trap optical tweezers system in which all relevant optical components and distances have been indicated: PBSC’s, polarizing beam-splitting cubes; L1, L2, L3, L4, lenses 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (with corresponding focal lengths of f1, f2, f3, f4, respectively); GMM’s, gimbal-mounted mirrors; MO, microscope objective; OEA, objective entrance aperture; EPM, externally positioned mirror. L4 represents a lens fixed mounted in the microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic demonstration of how the laser beam will pivot around the objective entrance aperture for small tiltings of the gimbal-mounted mirror, GMM, thus creating the movement of the optical trap in the specimen plane. EPM, externally positioned mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the effect of a movement of the first lens (L1) in the telescope within one of the two beam-split arms for adjustment of the z position of the focal plane of one of the traps (for abbreviations, see Fig. 1). The three figures show the situations in which the distance between the two lenses, d12, is (a) larger than, (b) equal to, (c) smaller than the sum of the two focal lengths, f1 + f2, respectively [i.e., (a) d12 > f1 +f2; (b) d12 = f1 + f2; (c) d12 < f1 + f2]. As can be clearly seen, the size of the beam at the position of the gimbal-mounted mirror remains the same, regardless of the movement of the first lens, which also implies that the degree of overfilling of the entrance aperture of the objective microscope will remain unchanged, despite a change of the z position of the trap.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Typical Values for Construction of a Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers System in an Inverted Microscope

Equations (11)

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dG3=f3f4d34-d40d34-f4f4d34-f3-d40d34-f3-f4,
dG3=f3f4f3+f4-f3f4d40.
θ2=-2f3f4θ1.
r=fEFLθ2,
r=5×10-3θ1,
hO=-f4f3hG.
hG=-d2Gf1-d12-f1d2G-f2f1f2hin,
hG=-f2f1hin,
hO=f2f1f4f3hin.
Δz=fEFLf42Δd34.
Δz=fEFLf42f3f22Δd12.

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