Abstract

We report the measurement of reproducible transient deformations with single-pulsed-subtraction and double-pulsed-addition TV holography with both in-plane and out-of-plane optical configurations. An original synchronization system (controlling mechanical excitation of the object, firing the laser pulses, and image acquisition) used to obtain the subtraction and the addition correlation fringes is described. Experimental results are presented for the propagation of mechanical shock waves in a cantilever specimen and their subsequent diffraction by a crack in the specimen. These preliminary results show that the technique may be used for crack detection.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Crawforth, C.-K. Lee, A. C. Munce, “Application of pulsed laser holographic interferometry to the study of magnetic disk drivecomponent motions,” in Proceedings of the 1990 Fall Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1991), pp. 404–412.
  2. K. Olofsson, L. E. Lindgren, “Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings,” Exp. Mech. 33, 308–313 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Huntley, L. R. Benckert, “Measurement of dynamic crack tip displacement field by speckle photography and interferometry,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 299–312 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, “Phase-stepped ESPI and moiré interferometry for measuring stress-intensity factor and J integral,” Exp. Mech. 35, 306–314 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. J. Løkberg, “Mapping of in-plane vibration modes by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 356–359 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. J. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, “Phase-stepped ESPI and moiré interferometry for measuring stress-intensity factor and J integral,” Exp. Mech. 35, 306–314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. Olofsson, L. E. Lindgren, “Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings,” Exp. Mech. 33, 308–313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Huntley, L. R. Benckert, “Measurement of dynamic crack tip displacement field by speckle photography and interferometry,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 299–312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

O. J. Løkberg, “Mapping of in-plane vibration modes by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 356–359 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Benckert, L. R.

J. M. Huntley, L. R. Benckert, “Measurement of dynamic crack tip displacement field by speckle photography and interferometry,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 299–312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Butters, J. N.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, T. J.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Crawforth, L.

L. Crawforth, C.-K. Lee, A. C. Munce, “Application of pulsed laser holographic interferometry to the study of magnetic disk drivecomponent motions,” in Proceedings of the 1990 Fall Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1991), pp. 404–412.

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley, L. R. Benckert, “Measurement of dynamic crack tip displacement field by speckle photography and interferometry,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 299–312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-K.

L. Crawforth, C.-K. Lee, A. C. Munce, “Application of pulsed laser holographic interferometry to the study of magnetic disk drivecomponent motions,” in Proceedings of the 1990 Fall Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1991), pp. 404–412.

Lindgren, L. E.

K. Olofsson, L. E. Lindgren, “Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings,” Exp. Mech. 33, 308–313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Løkberg, O. J.

O. J. Løkberg, “Mapping of in-plane vibration modes by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 356–359 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. J.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, “Phase-stepped ESPI and moiré interferometry for measuring stress-intensity factor and J integral,” Exp. Mech. 35, 306–314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munce, A. C.

L. Crawforth, C.-K. Lee, A. C. Munce, “Application of pulsed laser holographic interferometry to the study of magnetic disk drivecomponent motions,” in Proceedings of the 1990 Fall Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1991), pp. 404–412.

Olofsson, K.

K. Olofsson, L. E. Lindgren, “Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings,” Exp. Mech. 33, 308–313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-López, C.

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, B.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, H. C.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Quah, S. E.

V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shim, V. P. W.

V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spooren, R.

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

Toh, S. L.

V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tyrer, J. R.

A. J. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, “Phase-stepped ESPI and moiré interferometry for measuring stress-intensity factor and J integral,” Exp. Mech. 35, 306–314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Mech. (3)

A. J. Moore, J. R. Tyrer, “Phase-stepped ESPI and moiré interferometry for measuring stress-intensity factor and J integral,” Exp. Mech. 35, 306–314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Olofsson, L. E. Lindgren, “Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings,” Exp. Mech. 33, 308–313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. P. W. Shim, S. L. Toh, S. E. Quah, “Impact-induced flexural waves in a Timoshenko beam-shearographic detection and analysis,” Exp. Mech. 34, 340–348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Fringe visibility enhancement and phase calculation in double-pulsed addition ESPI,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1829–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

O. J. Løkberg, “Mapping of in-plane vibration modes by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 24, 356–359 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, C. Pérez-López, “Low frequency harmonic vibration analysis with double-pulsed addition ESPI,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2641–2650 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

J. M. Huntley, L. R. Benckert, “Measurement of dynamic crack tip displacement field by speckle photography and interferometry,” Opt. Laser Eng. 19, 299–312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed lasers in electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Crawforth, C.-K. Lee, A. C. Munce, “Application of pulsed laser holographic interferometry to the study of magnetic disk drivecomponent motions,” in Proceedings of the 1990 Fall Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1991), pp. 404–412.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Out-of-plane pulsed TVH system for transient deformation analysis. The optical components are BS, beam splitter; SF, spatial filter; NL, negative lens; BC, beam combiner; AP, aperture; L, imaging lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In-plane pulsed TVH system for transient deformation analysis. M, mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-pulsed-subtraction mode of operation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Double-pulsed-addition mode of operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Circuit to measure the delay ts between the mechanical impact and the laser pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image sequence of a transient deformation obtained with single-pulsed-subtraction TVH with (a) out-of-plane sensitivity and (b) in-plane sensitivity. The delay ts between solenoid impact and laser pulse is shown at the bottom of each image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image sequence of a transient deformation obtained with double-pulsed-addition TVH with (a) out-of-plane sensitivity and (b) in-plane sensitivity. The delay ts between solenoid impact and laser pulse is shown at the bottom of each image. The delay between pulses is 2 µs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transient deformation for a hidden notch obtained with out-of-plane, single-pulsed-subtraction TVH. The delay ts between solenoid impact and laser pulse is shown at the bottom of each image.

Equations (4)

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I1x, y=Iobjx, y+Irefx, y+2Iobjx, yIrefx, y1/2 cos Ψx, y,
I2x, y=Iobjx, y+Irefx, y+2Iobjx, yIrefx, y1/2×cosΨx, y+ϕx, y,
|I1-I2|=4IobjIref1/2 sinΨ+ϕ2sinϕ2,
I1+I2=2Iref+Iobj+4IobjIref1/2 cosΨ+ϕ2cosϕ2.

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