Abstract

Near-infrared light propagation in various models of the adult head is analyzed by both time-of-flight measurements and mathematical prediction. The models consist of three- or four-layered slabs, the latter incorporating a clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer. The most sophisticated model also incorporates slots that imitate sulci on the brain surface. For each model, the experimentally measured mean optical path length as a function of source–detector spacing agrees well with predictions from either a Monte Carlo model or a finite-element method based on diffusion theory or a hybrid radiosity–diffusion theory. Light propagation in the adult head is shown to be highly affected by the presence of the clear CSF layer, and both the optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile of the models with a CSF layer are quite different from those without the CSF layer. However, the geometry of the sulci and the boundary between the gray and the white matter have little effect on the detected light distribution.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering region,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (6)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093–2108 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Photon-measurement density functions. Part I: analytical forms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7395–7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (8)

Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5–8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Schotland, J. C. Haselgrove, J. S. Leigh, “Photon hitting density,” Appl. Opt. 32, 448–453 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

W. Cui, L. E. Ostrander, “The relationship of surface reflectance measurements to optical properties of layered biological media,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194–201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (5)

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue. I. Models of radiation transport and their application,” Lasers Med. Sci. 6, 155–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (3)

R. Nossal, J. Kiefer, G. H. Weiss, R. Bonner, H. Taitelbaum, S. Havlin, “Photon migration in layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3382–3391 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Non invasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, G.

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldrich, C. J.

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering region,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Photon-measurement density functions. Part I: analytical forms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7395–7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

Beaney, R. P.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R.

Brooks, D. J.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Buckingham, P.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Camporesi, E. M.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

Carpi, A.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miwa, Y. Ueda, B. Chance, “Development of time resolved spectroscopy system for quantitative noninvasive tissue measurement,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 142–149 (1995).

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, “Phase resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 248–256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, M. Maris, J. Sorge, M. Z. Zhang, “A phase modulation system for dual wavelength difference spectroscopy of haemoglobin deoxygenation in tissue,” in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry II, J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Proc. SPIE1204, 481–491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemence, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Corballis, P. M.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J. A.

Y. A. B. D. Wickramasinghe, J. A. Crowe, P. Rolfe, “Laser source and detector with single processor for a near infra-red medical application,” in IERE Progress Reports on Electronics in Medicine and Biology, K. Copeland, ed. (Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, London, 1986), pp. 209–215.

Cui, W.

W. Cui, L. E. Ostrander, “The relationship of surface reflectance measurements to optical properties of layered biological media,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194–201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering region,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093–2108 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scatter objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dirnagl, U.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duderstadt, J. J.

J. J. Duderstadt, L. J. Hamilton, Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1978), 140–144.

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, A. D.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C. E.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fabiani, M.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallon, P.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fieschi, C.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering region,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093–2108 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scatter objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frackowiak, R. S. J.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, I.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, J. M.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
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Gopinath, S. P.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
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Gratton, G.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
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S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, L. J.

J. J. Duderstadt, L. J. Hamilton, Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1978), 140–144.

Hampson, N. B.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
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Hatazawa, J.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Havlin, S.

Healy, M. J. R.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heather, J. D.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

Herold, S.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, “Phase resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 248–256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

Hock, C.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hood, D. C.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, D. C. Hood, “Shades of gray matter: noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation,” Psychophysiology 32, 505–509 (1995).
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A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, “Phase resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 248–256 (1995).
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K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

Lammerstsma, A. A.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leenders, K. L.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J. S.

Liu, H.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, “Phase resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 248–256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maris, M.

B. Chance, M. Maris, J. Sorge, M. Z. Zhang, “A phase modulation system for dual wavelength difference spectroscopy of haemoglobin deoxygenation in tissue,” in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry II, J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Proc. SPIE1204, 481–491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, D. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, Y. Ueda, B. Chance, “Development of time resolved spectroscopy system for quantitative noninvasive tissue measurement,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 142–149 (1995).

Moon, R. E.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

Nossal, R.

Okada, E.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of overlying tissue on the spatial sensitivity profile of near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 2093–2108 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

Ostrander, L. E.

W. Cui, L. E. Ostrander, “The relationship of surface reflectance measurements to optical properties of layered biological media,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194–201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue. I. Models of radiation transport and their application,” Lasers Med. Sci. 6, 155–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perani, D.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Piantadosi, C. A.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

Planck, J.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Potter, L. A.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, C. S.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolfe, P.

Y. A. B. D. Wickramasinghe, J. A. Crowe, P. Rolfe, “Laser source and detector with single processor for a near infra-red medical application,” in IERE Progress Reports on Electronics in Medicine and Biology, K. Copeland, ed. (Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, London, 1986), pp. 209–215.

Romaya, J.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schleinkofer, L.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, J. C.

Schweiger, M.

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering region,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of ‘light piping’ through clear regions of scatter objects,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 167–173 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “Experimental measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity on optical pathlength,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 174–181 (1995).

Shook, J. E.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

Sideri, G.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sorge, J.

B. Chance, M. Maris, J. Sorge, M. Z. Zhang, “A phase modulation system for dual wavelength difference spectroscopy of haemoglobin deoxygenation in tissue,” in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry II, J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Proc. SPIE1204, 481–491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, J. A.

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinks, T.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stolp, B. W.

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

Taitelbaum, H.

Tamura, M.

Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5–8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, “Phase resolved reflectance spectroscopy on layered turbid media,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 248–256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295–304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, Y.

M. Miwa, Y. Ueda, B. Chance, “Development of time resolved spectroscopy system for quantitative noninvasive tissue measurement,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 142–149 (1995).

van der Zee, P.

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Optical properties of brain tissue,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, R. R. Alfano, B. Chance, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 454–465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, G. H.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, Y. A. B. D.

Y. A. B. D. Wickramasinghe, J. A. Crowe, P. Rolfe, “Laser source and detector with single processor for a near infra-red medical application,” in IERE Progress Reports on Electronics in Medicine and Biology, K. Copeland, ed. (Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, London, 1986), pp. 209–215.

Wilson, B. C.

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue. I. Models of radiation transport and their application,” Lasers Med. Sci. 6, 155–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, R. J. S.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, J. S. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wyman, D.

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue. I. Models of radiation transport and their application,” Lasers Med. Sci. 6, 155–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, E.

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zeki, S.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. Z.

B. Chance, M. Maris, J. Sorge, M. Z. Zhang, “A phase modulation system for dual wavelength difference spectroscopy of haemoglobin deoxygenation in tissue,” in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry II, J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Proc. SPIE1204, 481–491 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (3)

M. Ferrari, E. Zanette, I. Giannini, G. Sideri, C. Fieschi, A. Carpi, “Effect of carotid artery compression test on regional cerebral blood volume, haemoglobin oxygen saturation and cytochrome-c-oxidase redox level in cerebrovascular patients,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 200, 213–222 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “Simulation of the point spread function for light in tissue by a Monte Carlo technique,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 215, 179–191 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. (1)

C. J. Aldrich, J. S. Wyatt, J. A. Spencer, E. O. R. Reynolds, D. T. Delpy, “The effect of maternal oxygen administration of human fetal cerebral oxygenation measured during labour by near infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 101, 509–513 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain (1)

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammerstsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. R. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. S. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, R. S. J. Frackowiak, T. Jones, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization,” Brain 113, 27–47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Neurosci. (1)

J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, A. D. Edwards, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of optical pathlength for cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” Dev. Neurosci. 12, 140–144 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

W. Cui, L. E. Ostrander, “The relationship of surface reflectance measurements to optical properties of layered biological media,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 194–201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

N. B. Hampson, E. M. Camporesi, B. W. Stolp, R. E. Moon, J. E. Shook, J. A. Griebel, C. A. Piantadosi, “Cerebral oxygen availability by NIR spectroscopy during transient hypoxia in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 69, 907–913 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, B. Chance, “Near infrared spectroscopic localisation of intracranial hematomas,” J. Neurosurg. 79, 43–47 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, S. Wray, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 8515, 1063–1066 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. Wyman, “The propagation of optical radiation in tissue. I. Models of radiation transport and their application,” Lasers Med. Sci. 6, 155–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (3)

B. C. Wilson, G. Adam, “A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue,” Med. Phys. 10, 824–830 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (2)

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, U. Dirnagl, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 154, 401–404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, “Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man,” Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5–8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Res. (1)

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, P. Fallon, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 39, 1–7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (7)

M. Hiraoka, M. Firbank, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, D. T. Delpy, “A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic designs of the adult head models.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Construction details for the adult head phantoms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean time of flight and corresponding mean optical path length as functions of the detection position predicted by the MCM and The corresponding mean optical path length the FEM compared with experimental results (±1 SD).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Partial mean optical path length as a function of detection position predicted by the MCM (symbols) and the FEM (curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized intensity of detected light for each model as a function of the detection position predicted by the MCM and the FEM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial sensitivity profiles with a detection fiber 15 mm distant from the light source along the horizontal (x) axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatial sensitivity profiles with a detection fiber 30 mm distant from the light source along the horizontal (x) axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spatial sensitivity profiles with a detection fiber 40 mm distant from the light source along the horizontal (x) axis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spatial sensitivity profiles with a detection fiber 30 mm distant from the light source along the vertical (y) axis.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties of the Adult Head Models

Equations (7)

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ΔODΔμaL=Δμact.
ΔOD ΔμaiLi.
lj=li-Δlμsi/μsj,
-·κrΦr+μarΦr=q0r,
Γr=-κrê·Φr,
Li=ΔΓ/Δμai.
ΓRq=AIp, scosθ1cosθ2r2exp-rμadA,

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