Abstract

We present experimental results that show the spatial variations of the diffuse-backscattered intensity when linearly polarized light is incident upon highly scattering media. Experiments on polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor g of the particles that constitute the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological-cell suspensions show the potential of this method for cell characterization.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  4. B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  29. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–129.
  30. A. H. Cook, The Chemistry and Biology of Yeast (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 235.
  31. E. A. Munn, The Structure of Mitochondria (Academic, New York, 1974).
  32. B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Brunsting, P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells,” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Dogariu, T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, S. Xie, “Measurement method of the refractive index of biotissue by total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1793–1795 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (4)

1988 (1)

S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Zeitz, A. Belmont, C. Nicolini, “Differential scattering of circularly polarized light as a unique probe of polynucleosome superstructure,” Cell Biophys. 5, 163–187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. S. Bickel, M. E. Stafford, “Polarized light scattering from biological systems: a technique for cell differentiation,” J. Biol. Phys. 9, 53–66 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. Brunsting, P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells,” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time resolved depolarization of multiple backscattered light from random media,” Phys. Lett. A 142, 531–536 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

M. Dogariu, T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belmont, A.

S. Zeitz, A. Belmont, C. Nicolini, “Differential scattering of circularly polarized light as a unique probe of polynucleosome superstructure,” Cell Biophys. 5, 163–187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, M. E. Stafford, “Polarized light scattering from biological systems: a technique for cell differentiation,” J. Biol. Phys. 9, 53–66 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–129.

Bronk, B. V.

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized-light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunsting, A.

A. Brunsting, P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells,” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

Carneiro, J.

L. C. Junqueira, J. Carneiro, R. O. Kelley, Basic HistologyAppleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1992), pp. 108–110.

Chance, B.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. H.

A. H. Cook, The Chemistry and Biology of Yeast (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 235.

Czege, J.

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, J. F.

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deGrooth, B. G.

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, M.

M. Dogariu, T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Druger, S. D.

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duck, F. A.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue (Academic, London, 1990), p. 63.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), p. 611.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujime, S.

S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

Huffman, D. R.

W. P. van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized-light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–129.

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

S. L. Jacques, L. H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, M. Ostermeyer, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VI, R. R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2671, 199–220 (1996).

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989), pp. 241–242.

Jansen, H.

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. G.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Junqueira, L. C.

L. C. Junqueira, J. Carneiro, R. O. Kelley, Basic HistologyAppleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1992), pp. 108–110.

Kang, K.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, P. D.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keijzer, M.

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R. O.

L. C. Junqueira, J. Carneiro, R. O. Kelley, Basic HistologyAppleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1992), pp. 108–110.

Kilkson, R.

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitai, T.

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liu, H.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maestre, M. F.

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

Marijnissen, J. P. A.

C. J. M. Moes, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, S. A. Prahl, “Measurements and calculations of the energy fluence rate in a scattering and absorbing phantom at 633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2292–2296 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, N. J.

Mickols, W.

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

Mishchenko, M. I.

Miwa, M.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, S.

S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Mullaney, P. F.

A. Brunsting, P. F. Mullaney, “Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells,” Biophys. J. 14, 439–453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munn, E. A.

E. A. Munn, The Structure of Mitochondria (Academic, New York, 1974).

Nicolini, C.

S. Zeitz, A. Belmont, C. Nicolini, “Differential scattering of circularly polarized light as a unique probe of polynucleosome superstructure,” Cell Biophys. 5, 163–187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ostermeyer, M.

S. L. Jacques, L. H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, M. Ostermeyer, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VI, R. R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2671, 199–220 (1996).

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 285–302.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), p. 611.

Puppels, G. J.

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, G. C.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Singham, S. B.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Stafford, M. E.

W. S. Bickel, M. E. Stafford, “Polarized light scattering from biological systems: a technique for cell differentiation,” J. Biol. Phys. 9, 53–66 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M.

B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. M. Moes, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, S. A. Prahl, “Measurements and calculations of the energy fluence rate in a scattering and absorbing phantom at 633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2292–2296 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, D. V.

S. L. Jacques, L. H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, M. Ostermeyer, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VI, R. R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2671, 199–220 (1996).

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

Takasaki-Oshito, M.

S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terstappen, L. W. M. M.

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), p. 611.

Thomsen, S. L.

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

Tinoco, I. J.

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

Tittel, F. K.

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), 40–59.

van de Merwe, W. P.

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized-light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. M. Moes, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, S. A. Prahl, “Measurements and calculations of the energy fluence rate in a scattering and absorbing phantom at 633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2292–2296 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), p. 611.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

Wang, L. H.

S. L. Jacques, L. H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, M. Ostermeyer, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VI, R. R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2671, 199–220 (1996).

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Yoo, K. M.

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time resolved depolarization of multiple backscattered light from random media,” Phys. Lett. A 142, 531–536 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zeitz, S.

S. Zeitz, A. Belmont, C. Nicolini, “Differential scattering of circularly polarized light as a unique probe of polynucleosome superstructure,” Cell Biophys. 5, 163–187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. (1)

I. J. Tinoco, W. Mickols, M. F. Maestre, C. Bustamante, “Absorption, scattering, and imaging of biomolecular structures with polarized light,” Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biochem. 16, 319–349 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (4)

B. V. Bronk, S. D. Druger, J. Czege, W. P. van de Merwe, “Measuring diameters of rod-shaped bacteria in vivo with polarized light scattering,” Biophys. J. 69, 1170–1177 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartment to the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fujime, M. Takasaki-Oshito, S. Miyamoto, “Dynamic light scattering from polydisperse suspensions of large spheres,” Biophys. J. 54, 1179–1184 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Biophys. (2)

S. Zeitz, A. Belmont, C. Nicolini, “Differential scattering of circularly polarized light as a unique probe of polynucleosome superstructure,” Cell Biophys. 5, 163–187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties for various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (2)

B. V. Bronk, W. P. van de Merwe, M. Stanley, “An in vivo measure of average bacterial cell size from polarized light scattering function,” Cytometry 13, 155–162 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. G. deGrooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light-scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel, M. E. Stafford, “Polarized light scattering from biological systems: a technique for cell differentiation,” J. Biol. Phys. 9, 53–66 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Dogariu, T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photchem. Photobiol. (1)

W. M. Star, J. P. A. Marijnissen, H. Jansen, M. Keijzer, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy by whole bladder wall irradiation,” Photchem. Photobiol. 46, 619–624 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time resolved depolarization of multiple backscattered light from random media,” Phys. Lett. A 142, 531–536 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), 40–59.

R. C. Weast, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989).

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue (Academic, London, 1990), p. 63.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 285–302.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989), pp. 241–242.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–129.

A. H. Cook, The Chemistry and Biology of Yeast (Academic, New York, 1958), p. 235.

E. A. Munn, The Structure of Mitochondria (Academic, New York, 1974).

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

L. Wang, D. V. Stephens, S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Polarized diffuse reflectance of laser light on a turbid medium,” presented at the International Conference on Future Directions of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Engineering Foundation, Snowbird, Utah, 9–14 July 1995.

S. L. Jacques, L. H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, M. Ostermeyer, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” in Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VI, R. R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2671, 199–220 (1996).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), p. 611.

L. C. Junqueira, J. Carneiro, R. O. Kelley, Basic HistologyAppleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn., 1992), pp. 108–110.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the sample geometry for measurement of diffuse-backscattered polarized light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring diffuse-backscattered polarized light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Image of the diffuse-backscattered intensity from a yeast cell suspension taken with crossed polarizers LP1 and LP2, (b) image of the diffuse-backscattered intensity from a yeast-cell suspension taken without polarizers, (c) point-by-point division of the image in (a) by image in (b). This image was additionally rendered by filter operations and contrast enhancement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Values of the intensity ratio [Fig. 3(a)/Fig. 3(b)] on a circle with radius r = 0.25 cm, centered around the light input point in the middle of Fig. 3(c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional intensity ratios Ix, t(r α) and Ip,t(r, α) calculated from PDB images of polystyrene-sphere solutions with (a), (b), (c) crossed polarizers, (d), (e), (f) parallel polarizers. The column pairs [(a), (d)], [(b), (e)], and [(c), (f)] have the same sphere diameter d, scattering coefficient μs, and anisotropy factor g, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity ratios Ip,t(r, α) as functions of azimuthal angle α for various radii rrp. Here the results of a polystyrene-sphere suspension with sphere diameter d = 0.966 µm are shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity ratios Ip,t(r, α) of Figs. 5(d)5(f) and 6 for a fixed radius of r = rp/3 as functions of the azimuthal angle α.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the ratio of Ip,t(r = rp/3, α = 90°)/Ip,t(r = rp/3, α = 0°) on the particle diameter in polystyrene-sphere suspensions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pattern radius rx, p for the case of crossed polarizers for polystyrene-sphere suspensions with a particle diameter of d = 0.497 µm as a function of particle concentration.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

2D intensity ratios Ix, t(r, α) as calculated from images of a polystyrene-sphere suspension with crossed polarizers: (a) g = 0.329, μs = 27.9 cm-1, d = 0.204 µm; (b) g = 0.663, μs = 26.2 cm-1, d = 0.304 µm; (c) g = 0.821, μs = 24.9 cm-1, d = 0.497 µm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Radius of the polarization pattern and its dependence on the anisotropy factor g for the cases of crossed polarizers (open squares, solid curve) and parallel polarizers (filled circles, dashed curve).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Intensity ratio Ip,t(r, α) obtained from a 0.8% Intralipid solution with parallel polarizers: (a) 2D image, (b) one-dimensional graph with radius fixed at r = rp/3 = 0.15 cm. In both cases 0 ≤ α ≤ 180°.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Intensity ratio Ip,t(r, α) obtained from a wild-type yeast cell-suspension [(50 mg dry weight)/ml] with parallel polarizers: (a) 2D image, (b) one-dimensional graph with radius fixed at r = rp/3 = 0.38. In both cases 0 ≤ α ≤ 180°.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Intensity ratio Ip,t(r, α) obtained from an M1 rat fibroblast-cell suspension with parallel polarizers: (a) 2D image, (b) one-dimensional graph with radius fixed at r = rp/3 = 0.68 cm. In both cases 0 ≤ α ≤ 180°.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Mie calculations of the scattering phase function for spherical particles with a refractive index of n = 1.59 in H2O (nw = 1.33) at a wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm. Diameters d of the particles are (a) 0.096 nm, (b) 497 nm, (c) 2920 nm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Same as Fig. 13, except that the spherical particles have a smaller refractive index of n = 1.4, which is typical for biological cells and their compartments.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ip, tr, α=Ipr, αItr, α,
Ix, tr, α=Ixr, αItr, α.
g4πΩ·ΩpΩ, ΩdΩ.
rp,p=0.45 cm=3.2 mfp=3.21-gμs-1μs=29.6 cm-1.

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