Abstract

We conducted year-round measurements of the downwelling atmospheric infrared emission over the South Pole in 1992. The instrument covered the 550–1600-wave-number region with 1-wave-number resolution. We calculated the water vapor content for clear-sky cases and found a good correlation with the surface temperature, with values ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 mm. Ozone-sonde profiles were compared with total column abundances of O3 retrieved from the spectra. The experiment is explained in detail, including the instrumentation, calibration, and retrieval methods used. The calibrated spectra contain information about several trace gases, water, clouds, temperature profiles, and aerosols.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Trimble, R. L. De Zafra, “Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 264–265 (1993).
  2. D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).
  3. A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).
  4. F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).
  5. A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).
  6. A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).
  7. C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).
  8. S. J. Oltmans, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, 1995).
  9. F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission measurements,” Antarct. J. U.S. 25, 244–246 (1990).
  10. F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Year-round measurement of atmospheric infrared emission at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 26, 278–281 (1991).
  11. F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Extended observation of atmospheric infrared absorption and emission,” Antarct. J. U.S. 27, 278–279 (1992).
  12. R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 259–260 (1993).
  13. R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 29, 324–325 (1994).
  14. R. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).
  15. C. Weddigen, C. E. Blom, M. Hopfner, “Phase corrections for the emission sounder MIPAS-FT,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4586–4589 (1993).
  16. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.
  17. R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).
  18. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
  19. M. A. H. Smith, “Compilation of atmospheric gas concentration profiles from 0 to 50 km,” NASA Tech. Memo 83289 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1982).
  20. R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).
  21. A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).
  22. A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).
  23. C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, M. A. H. Smith, V. M. Devi, “Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H216O pure rotational and n2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1427–1438 (1991).
  24. W. M. Connolley, J. C. King, “Atmospheric water-vapor transport to Antarctica inferred from radiosonde data,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 325–342 (1993).

1995

R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).

1994

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 29, 324–325 (1994).

1993

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 259–260 (1993).

C. Trimble, R. L. De Zafra, “Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 264–265 (1993).

W. M. Connolley, J. C. King, “Atmospheric water-vapor transport to Antarctica inferred from radiosonde data,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 325–342 (1993).

C. Weddigen, C. E. Blom, M. Hopfner, “Phase corrections for the emission sounder MIPAS-FT,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4586–4589 (1993).

1992

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Extended observation of atmospheric infrared absorption and emission,” Antarct. J. U.S. 27, 278–279 (1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

1991

1990

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission measurements,” Antarct. J. U.S. 25, 244–246 (1990).

1989

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

1988

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

1987

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

1983

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

1982

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Bell, R.

R. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Blatherwick, R. D.

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

Blom, C. E.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Buijs, H.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Connolley, W. M.

W. M. Connolley, J. C. King, “Atmospheric water-vapor transport to Antarctica inferred from radiosonde data,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 325–342 (1993).

De Zafra, R. L.

C. Trimble, R. L. De Zafra, “Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 264–265 (1993).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, M. A. H. Smith, V. M. Devi, “Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H216O pure rotational and n2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1427–1438 (1991).

Fernald, F. G.

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, M. A. H. Smith, V. M. Devi, “Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H216O pure rotational and n2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1427–1438 (1991).

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

Heuberger, R.

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Extended observation of atmospheric infrared absorption and emission,” Antarct. J. U.S. 27, 278–279 (1992).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Year-round measurement of atmospheric infrared emission at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 26, 278–281 (1991).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission measurements,” Antarct. J. U.S. 25, 244–246 (1990).

Hopfner, M.

Howell, H. B.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

King, J. C.

W. M. Connolley, J. C. King, “Atmospheric water-vapor transport to Antarctica inferred from radiosonde data,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 325–342 (1993).

Knuteson, R. O.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

LaPorte, D. D.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Levine, J.

Liu, X.

R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Murcray, D. G.

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Murcray, F. H.

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Murcray, F. J.

R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 29, 324–325 (1994).

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 259–260 (1993).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Extended observation of atmospheric infrared absorption and emission,” Antarct. J. U.S. 27, 278–279 (1992).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Year-round measurement of atmospheric infrared emission at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 26, 278–281 (1991).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission measurements,” Antarct. J. U.S. 25, 244–246 (1990).

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Oltmans, S. J.

S. J. Oltmans, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, 1995).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, M. A. H. Smith, V. M. Devi, “Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H216O pure rotational and n2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1427–1438 (1991).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, J. Levine, “Infrared measurements of increased CF2Cl2 1CFC-122 absorption above the South Pole,” Appl. Opt. 27, 627–630 (1988).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, M. A. H. Smith, V. M. Devi, “Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H216O pure rotational and n2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1427–1438 (1991).

M. A. H. Smith, “Compilation of atmospheric gas concentration profiles from 0 to 50 km,” NASA Tech. Memo 83289 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1982).

Smith, W. L.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Sromovsky, L.A.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

Trimble, C.

C. Trimble, R. L. De Zafra, “Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 264–265 (1993).

Van Allen, R.

R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).

VanAllen, R.

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 29, 324–325 (1994).

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 259–260 (1993).

Weddigen, C.

Williams, W. J.

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Woolf, H. W.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

Antarct. J. U.S.

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission measurements,” Antarct. J. U.S. 25, 244–246 (1990).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Year-round measurement of atmospheric infrared emission at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 26, 278–281 (1991).

F. J. Murcray, R. Heuberger, “Extended observation of atmospheric infrared absorption and emission,” Antarct. J. U.S. 27, 278–279 (1992).

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 259–260 (1993).

R. VanAllen, F. J. Murcray, “Infrared atmospheric absorption and emission studies,” Antarct. J. U.S. 29, 324–325 (1994).

C. Trimble, R. L. De Zafra, “Observation of trace gases in the stratosphere over a 1-year cycle at the South Pole,” Antarct. J. U.S. 28, 264–265 (1993).

D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Infrared atmospheric transmission and emission measurements from the South Pole station,” Antarct. J. U.S. 17, 207–208 (1982).

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Quantification of HCl from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in December 1986,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 622–623 (1987).

R. Van Allen, X. Liu, F. J. Murcray, “Seasonal variation of the atmospheric nitric acid over the South Pole in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 49–52 (1995).

J. Geophys. Res.

R. D. Blatherwick, D. G. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, A. Goldman, “Infrared emission measurements of morning stratospheric N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18337–18340 (1989).

A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high resolution 3–4 micron solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-μm solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7069–7074 (1988).

F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, D. G. Murcray, “Infrared measurements of several nitrogen species above the South Pole in December 1980 and November–December 1986,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13373–13376 (1987).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 189–204 (1983).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).

A. Goldman, F. G. Fernald, F. J. Murcray, F. H. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, “Spectral least squares quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 189–204 (1983).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

W. M. Connolley, J. C. King, “Atmospheric water-vapor transport to Antarctica inferred from radiosonde data,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 325–342 (1993).

Other

S. J. Oltmans, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, 1995).

M. A. H. Smith, “Compilation of atmospheric gas concentration profiles from 0 to 50 km,” NASA Tech. Memo 83289 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1982).

R. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, L.A. Sromovsky, H. W. Woolf, “Radiometric calibration of IR interferometers: experience from the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) aircraft instrument,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods, H. E. Flemming, J. S. Theon, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 89–101.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the South Pole Interferometer (Bomem MB100). BB, blackbody; F.L., focal length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Responsivity of the interferometer (MB100) and the imaginary part of the anomalous phase. The anomalous-phase offset is caused by the emission of the beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles for O3. Dashed curve, 5 July 1995 data used to validate the 7 July 1995 spectrum (no adjustments were necessary); solid curve, 20 January data used to validate the 17 January 1995 spectrum (the dashed curve with ×'s indicates adjustment below 10 km).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Clear-sky emission spectra from the South Pole on 17 January 1992, taken at 75° zenith angle. The solid curves indicate the calculated spectra, and the dashed curves indicate the measured spectra. a, CO2 region can be for the retrieval of temperature profiles. Top curves, 17 January 1992; bottom curves, 7 July 1992. The cup-shaped region around the 667-cm−1 CO2 shows the effect of the strong temperature inversion prevalent in the winter at the South Pole. b, Dominant feature between 1000 and 1100 cm−1 is caused by ozone. c, Window region contains emission lines of H2O, F11, and HNO3. d, In the region above 1100 cm−1 the main emitters are H2O, CH4, and N2O.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Expanded view of the 12-μm window, showing emission lines of HNO3, H2O, F11, and F12. The lines used for the retrievals of column abundances are indicated. Top, Denver, 6 June 1994; bottom, South Pole, 17 January 1992. Notice that the signal in the Denver spectrum is approximately 8 times the signal of the South Pole lines because of the higher temperature and the increased water content.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectra from the South Pole in 1992, measured under different sky conditions. Top curve, stratus, 23 January 1992; middle curve, thin cirrus, 5 March 1992; bottom curve, clear sky, 21 May 1992. All spectra were taken at 75° zenith angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Year-round values for the precipitable water content (PWC) over the South Pole in 1992 for clear-sky cases (filled squares). The surface temperature is shown for reference (open circles). The error bars represent the data from Table 3.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Temperature Profiles for a Summer (17 January 1992) and a Winter Case (7 July 1992) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Column Amounts Used to Model the Spectrum from 17 January 1992

Tables Icon

Table 3 Error Budget for the Precipitable Water Vapor a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Precipitable Water Vapor over the South Pole in 1992

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C ν = r ν { L ν + L ν 0   exp [ i φ 0 ( ν ) ] } exp [ i ϕ ( ν ) ] ,
r ν = | C h ν C c ν | / [ B ν ( T h ) B ν ( T c ) ] ,
L ν = Re [ ( C ν C c ν ) / ( C h ν C c ν ) ] [ B ν ( T h ) B ν ( T c ) ] + B ν ( T c ) .

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