Abstract

A new technique has been developed to make possible the laboratory study of the infrared-emission spectra of gases of atmospheric interest. The thermal-emission spectra are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, just as they are in the atmosphere, and are not chemiluminescent. Demonstration results obtained by the use of this new technique are presented for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) at a pressure of 0.5 Torr in a cell with a path length of 5 cm. The measured cell spectra have been compared with simulations with the FASCD3P radiation code. The measurements of the emission spectra of radiatively active gases may be important for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.
  2. A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).
  3. S. T. Massie, A. Goldman, “Absorption parameters of very dense molecular spectra for the HITRAN compilation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 713–719 (1992).
  4. P. Varanasi, “Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies,” J. Quant Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 205–219 (1992).
  5. P. Varanasi, V. Nemtchinov, “Thermal infrared absorption coefficients of CFC-12 at atmospheric conditions,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 679–687 (1994).
  6. B. H. Armstrong, R. W. Nicholls, Emission, Absorption, and Transfer of Radiation in Heated Atmospheres (Pergamon, New York, 1972).
  7. P. R. Griffiths, “Infrared emission spectroscopy. 1. Basic considerations,” Appl. Spectrosc. 26, 73–76 (1972).
  8. F. J. DeBlase, S. Compton, “Infrared emission spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental overview,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 611–618 (1991).
  9. W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “An observation of the greenhouse radiation associated with carbon monoxide,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 925–928 (1995).
  10. D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).
  11. R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Chemical Reactivity (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1987), Chap. 6.
  12. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.
  13. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
  14. J. Barrett, “The roles of carbon dioxide and water vapour in warming and cooling the Earth's troposphere,” Spectrochim. Acta 51, 415–417 (1995).
  15. W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “The measurement and extraction of the ν6 atmospheric emission band of CFC-12 from interfering emission features,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 969–972 (1995).

1995 (4)

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “An observation of the greenhouse radiation associated with carbon monoxide,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 925–928 (1995).

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

J. Barrett, “The roles of carbon dioxide and water vapour in warming and cooling the Earth's troposphere,” Spectrochim. Acta 51, 415–417 (1995).

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “The measurement and extraction of the ν6 atmospheric emission band of CFC-12 from interfering emission features,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 969–972 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. Varanasi, V. Nemtchinov, “Thermal infrared absorption coefficients of CFC-12 at atmospheric conditions,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 679–687 (1994).

1992 (3)

S. T. Massie, A. Goldman, “Absorption parameters of very dense molecular spectra for the HITRAN compilation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 713–719 (1992).

P. Varanasi, “Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies,” J. Quant Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 205–219 (1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

1991 (2)

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

F. J. DeBlase, S. Compton, “Infrared emission spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental overview,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 611–618 (1991).

1972 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Armstrong, B. H.

B. H. Armstrong, R. W. Nicholls, Emission, Absorption, and Transfer of Radiation in Heated Atmospheres (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

Barrett, J.

J. Barrett, “The roles of carbon dioxide and water vapour in warming and cooling the Earth's troposphere,” Spectrochim. Acta 51, 415–417 (1995).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Bernstein, R. B.

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Chemical Reactivity (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1987), Chap. 6.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Calvert, J. G.

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

Camy-eyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Cantrell, C. A.

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

Chance, K. V.

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

Chetwynd, J. H.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Compton, S.

Davidson, J. A.

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

DeBlase, F. J.

Derwent, R. G.

K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Evans, W. F. J.

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “The measurement and extraction of the ν6 atmospheric emission band of CFC-12 from interfering emission features,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 969–972 (1995).

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “An observation of the greenhouse radiation associated with carbon monoxide,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 925–928 (1995).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Goldman, A.

S. T. Massie, A. Goldman, “Absorption parameters of very dense molecular spectra for the HITRAN compilation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 713–719 (1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Griffiths, P. R.

Hall, L. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Johnson, D. G.

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

Jucks, K. W.

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Levine, R. D.

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Chemical Reactivity (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1987), Chap. 6.

Massie, S. T.

S. T. Massie, A. Goldman, “Absorption parameters of very dense molecular spectra for the HITRAN compilation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 713–719 (1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

McDaniel, A. H.

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

Morcrette, J.-J.

K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.

Nemtchinov, V.

P. Varanasi, V. Nemtchinov, “Thermal infrared absorption coefficients of CFC-12 at atmospheric conditions,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 679–687 (1994).

Nicholls, R. W.

B. H. Armstrong, R. W. Nicholls, Emission, Absorption, and Transfer of Radiation in Heated Atmospheres (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Puckrin, E.

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “The measurement and extraction of the ν6 atmospheric emission band of CFC-12 from interfering emission features,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 969–972 (1995).

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “An observation of the greenhouse radiation associated with carbon monoxide,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 925–928 (1995).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Shetter, R. E.

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

Shire, K. P.

K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

Traub, W. A.

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

Varanasi, P.

P. Varanasi, V. Nemtchinov, “Thermal infrared absorption coefficients of CFC-12 at atmospheric conditions,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 679–687 (1994).

P. Varanasi, “Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies,” J. Quant Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 205–219 (1992).

Wuebbler, D. J.

K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.

Ann. Geophys. (1)

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “The measurement and extraction of the ν6 atmospheric emission band of CFC-12 from interfering emission features,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 969–972 (1995).

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

W. F. J. Evans, E. Puckrin, “An observation of the greenhouse radiation associated with carbon monoxide,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 925–928 (1995).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, W. A. Traub, K. V. Chance, “Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3091–3106 (1995).

J. Quant Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

P. Varanasi, “Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies,” J. Quant Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 205–219 (1992).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

S. T. Massie, A. Goldman, “Absorption parameters of very dense molecular spectra for the HITRAN compilation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 713–719 (1992).

J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-eyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).

P. Varanasi, V. Nemtchinov, “Thermal infrared absorption coefficients of CFC-12 at atmospheric conditions,” J. QuantSpectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 679–687 (1994).

J.Atmos. Chem. (1)

A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, J. A. Davidson, R. E. Shetter, J. G. Calvert, “The temperature dependent, infrared absorption cross-sections for the chlorofluorocarbons: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-13, CFC-14, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115,” J.Atmos. Chem. 12, 211–227 (1991).

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

J. Barrett, “The roles of carbon dioxide and water vapour in warming and cooling the Earth's troposphere,” Spectrochim. Acta 51, 415–417 (1995).

Other (4)

K. P. Shire, R. G. Derwent, D. J. Wuebbler, J.-J. Morcrette, “Radiative forcing of climate,” in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, J. J. Ephraums, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1990), Chap. 2.

B. H. Armstrong, R. W. Nicholls, Emission, Absorption, and Transfer of Radiation in Heated Atmospheres (Pergamon, New York, 1972).

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Chemical Reactivity (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1987), Chap. 6.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, “IRS ’88: current problems in atmospheric radiation,” J. Lenoble, J. F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1988), pp. 372–375.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setup used for the laboratory measurement of the thermal-emission spectra of gases. MCT, mercury–cadmium–telluride.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal-emission spectrum of 0.50 Torr of CFC-12 in a gas cell (curve A), showing the ν 3 + ν 9 and the ν 6 band regions. A FASCD3P simulation (curve B) of the pure CFC-12 emission is shown for comparison. Curve C represents the residual radiance, which has been shifted downward by 3 × 10−7 W/(cm2 sr cm−1) for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal-emission spectrum of 0.50 Torr of CFC-12 in a gas cell (curve A), showing the ν 1 and the ν 8 band regions. A FASCD3P simulation (curve B) of the pure CFC-12 emission is shown for comparison. The residual radiance is represented by curve C, which has been shifted downward by 3 × 10−7 W/(cm2 sr cm−1) for clarity.

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