Abstract

An iterative method to determine an average backscatter-to-extinction ratio and extinction coefficient simultaneously in cirrus clouds is proposed. The method is based on Klett's inversion, which is constrained by the total optical depth. A signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 at the cloud top is required for an error in the backscatter-to-extinction ratio lower than 20% to result. The method has been tested with simulated lidar signals. An application to an experimental lidar signal is discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
  2. A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).
  3. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
  4. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
  5. C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).
  6. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
  7. A. C. Holland, G. Gagne, “The scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1113–1121 (1970).
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  9. B. T. N. Evans, “Sensitivity of the backscatter/extinction ratio to changes in aerosol properties: implications for lidar,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3299–3305 (1988).
  10. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
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  14. C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 119, 6–12 (1990).
  15. R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a new atmospheric probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220–230 (1966).
  16. W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).
  17. C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III. Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattering lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
  18. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
  19. J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

1994 (1)

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

1993 (1)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 119, 6–12 (1990).

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (2)

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III. Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattering lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).

1970 (1)

1969 (2)

P. Huffman, W. R. Thursby, “Light scattering by ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073–1077 (1969).

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).

1966 (1)

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a new atmospheric probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220–230 (1966).

Ansmann, A.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Balin, Yu. S.

Bösenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Brogniez, G.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

Carswell, A. I.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Collis, R. T. H.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a new atmospheric probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220–230 (1966).

DelGuasta, M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Eberhard, W. L.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 119, 6–12 (1990).

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1. Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716–3724 (1983).

Elouragini, S.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Evans, B. T. N.

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Flamant, P. H.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Forgan, B.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Gagne, G.

Gimmestad, G. G.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 119, 6–12 (1990).

Hardesty, M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Holland, A. C.

Huffman, P.

P. Huffman, W. R. Thursby, “Light scattering by ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073–1077 (1969).

Jäger, H.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Kaprieolev, B.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Kavkyanov, S. I.

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Klapheck, K.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

Klapheck, K. H.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Klett, J. D.

Kolev, I.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Linne, H.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Linné, H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).

Loth, C.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Lu, Da-ren

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

McCormick, M. P.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Menenger, L.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Michaelis, W.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Michaelis, W. W.

Mizuno, Y.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Moerl, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Pal, S. R.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Platt, C. M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III. Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattering lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).

Razenkov, I. A.

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Renger, W.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Roesler, F. L.

Sassen, K.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Senff, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Shamanaev, V.S.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Shipley, S. T.

Sroga, J. T.

Stefanutti, L.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Thro, P. Y.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Thursby, W. R.

P. Huffman, W. R. Thursby, “Light scattering by ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073–1077 (1969).

Tracy, D. H.

Trauger, J. T.

Uchino, O.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Uthe, E. E.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).

Valentin, R.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Viezee, W.

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).

Wandinger, U.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Weinman, J. A.

Weinman, J.A.

Weitkamp, C.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

Winker, D. M.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Wooldridge, C.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Young, S. A.

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (8)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

C. M. Platt, S. A. Young, A. I. Carswell, S. R. Pal, M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, M. DelGuasta, L. Stefanutti, W. L. Eberhard, M. Hardesty, P. H. Flamant, R. Valentin, B. Forgan, G. G. Gimmestad, H. Jäger, S. S. Khmelevtsov, I. Kolev, B. Kaprieolev, Da-ren Lu, K. Sassen, V.S. Shamanaev, O. Uchino, Y. Mizuno, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, A. Ansmann, C. Wooldridge, “The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1635–1654 (1994).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (3)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993).

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).

W. Viezee, E. E. Uthe, R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar observations of airfield approach conditions: an exploratory study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 274–283 (1969).

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III. Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattering lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).

P. Huffman, W. R. Thursby, “Light scattering by ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073–1077 (1969).

Mon. Weather Rev. (2)

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: cloud optical properties determined by high spectral resolution lidar,” Mon. Weather Rev. 119, 6–12 (1990).

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a new atmospheric probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220–230 (1966).

Other (1)

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linne, C. Loth, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, P. Moerl, J. Pelon, W. Renger, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Measurements with lidar systems during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989,” MPI Rep. 60 (Max Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1990).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Application of the back-TOD method to a simulated lidar signal. The input cloud parameters are optical depth δin = 0.30, base R b = 8 km, top R t = 10 km, and SNR(R t ) = 15. (a) Range-corrected backscatter signal. The straight lines indicate the height dependence of Rayleigh scattering. The slope method is applied (δout is the half-distance between two straight lines plotted above and below the cloud echo): δ s = 0.30. (b) Input and output extinction profiles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Global relative error on the backscatter-to-extinction ratio Δ k p / k p ( = | k p , in k p , out | / k p , in ) (calculated with the back-TOD method) versus SNR (usually at the cloud top). Simulated signals were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical check of Eq. (4). A series of low-noise (SNR = 15) simulated lidar signals have been used. The input backscatter-to-extinction ratio (k p,in) varies from 0.02 to 0.06 sr−1 in 0.01-sr−1 steps and from 0.06 to 0.4 sr−1 in 0.02-sr−1 steps. The signals have been processed with the back-TOD method in order to determine the term α p,f . The input backscatter-to-extinction ratio k p,in is then plotted versus the output quantity k m α m,f eq,f = k p,out. The numerical results are adjusted by a linear regression whose slope is equal to 1. The results agree with Eq. (4). The horizontal bars represent the relative error in k p,out, which is approximately 2.5%. This value is deduced from Fig. 2. Here all simulated lidar signals have roughly the same value of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR = 15).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Seven backscatter-to-extinction ratio k p (R) profiles (solid curves) are used to generate seven lidar signals. The back-TOD method is then applied, and the output (dashed lines) average backscatter-to-extinction ratios are compared with the input profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Inversion of the seven lidar profiles that have been simulated with SNR = 4 and the previous seven profiles of k p (R). The mean input and output backscatter-to-extinction ratios are compared. The vertical bars indicate the relative error (Δk p /k p ), which is deduced from Fig. 2 after the SNR for each lidar signal is calculated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Input and output profiles of the backscatter coefficient. The double-ended and the back-TOD methods are compared. Here the input backscatter-to-extinction coefficients are (a) k p,6 and (b) k p,7 (see Fig. 4). For the double-ended method, k p,6 out = 0.039 sr−1 and k p,7 out = 0.076 sr−1, and for the back-TOD method, k p,6 out = 0.042 sr−1 and k p,7 out = 0.081 sr−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Application of the back-TOD and the double-ended methods on a low-noise (SNR = 15) simulated lidar signal. (a) Range-corrected backscatter signal. (b) Comparison of the input extinction profile with the back-TOD and the double-ended (Klett forward−backward integration) output profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lidar signal measured by a Nd-YAG 0.53-μm lidar on 12 January 1988 near Paris. The cirrus base and top altitudes are R b = 8.5 km and R t = 11.5 km, and SNR(R t ) = 10.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Application of the back-TOD and the double-ended methods (Klett forward−backward integration) on the measured lidar signal presented in Fig. 8 and a comparison of the two output extinction profiles. The reference altitude is R f = 9.5 km for the forward solution and R f = 11.5 km for the backward solution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Application of the back-TOD and the double-ended methods on 17 lidar signals, measured on 29 September 1993. Each signal is an average of 400 shots. Time averaging and data storage take approximately 1 min. The backscatter-to-extinction ratios derived from the two methods are compared. The vertical bars indicate the relative error (Δk p /k p ), which is also deduced from Fig. 2 after the SNR is calculated for each lidar signal.

Equations (5)

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β p ( R ) = X ( R ) [ A 2 k p R b R X ( r ) d r ] 1 ,
β p ( R ) = exp [ S ( R ) S ( R b ) ] [ β p ( R b ) ] 1 2 k p R b R exp [ S ( r ) S ( R b ) ] d r
β p ( R ) = exp [ S ( R ) S ( R t ) ] [ β p ( R t ) ] 1 + 2 k p R R t exp [ S ( r ) S ( R t ) ] d r
α p ( R ) = exp [ S ( R ) S f ] α p , f 1 + 2 R R f exp [ S ( r ) S f ] d r ,
k p = α m , f α eq , f k m .

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