Abstract

Sol-gel-processed composite materials of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and SiO2 were studied for optical waveguide applications. PVP is a polymer that can be crosslinked, so it is expected to have high thermal stability after crosslinking. However, thermal crosslinking and thermal decomposition of pure PVP take place around the same temperature, 200 °C, therefore pure PVP had a high optical propagation loss as a result of the absorption of the decomposed molecules after crosslinking. The incorporation of sol-gel-processed SiO2 prevented the thermal decomposition of PVP and provided remarkably low optical propagation losses. The PVP/SiO2 composite material also produced thick (>2-μm) crack-free films when the PVP concentration was 50% or higher. An optical propagation loss of 0.2 dB/cm was achieved at 633 nm in the 50% PVP/SiO2 composite planar waveguide. Several aspects of the thermal stability of the waveguides were evaluated. The slab waveguide was then used for fabrication of channel waveguides with a selective laser-densification technique. This technique used metal lines fabricated with photolithography on the slab waveguide as a light absorbent, and these metal lines were heated by an Ar laser. The resultant channel waveguide had an optical propagation loss of 0.9 dB/cm at 633 nm. This technique provides lower absorption loss and scattering loss compared with the direct laser-densification technique, which uses UV lasers, and produces narrow waveguides that are difficult to fabricate with a CO2 laser.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. C. Klein, Sol-Gel Technology (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988).
  2. M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).
  3. L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).
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  5. M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).
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  9. S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).
  10. K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).
  11. S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Organic–inorganic optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1125–1127 (1994).
  12. D. Shamrakov, R. Reisfeld, “Superradiant film laser operation in red perylimide dye doped silica-polymethylmeth-acrylate composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 47–53 (1993).
  13. H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).
  14. A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).
  15. K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).
  16. C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).
  17. G. S. He, C. J. Wung, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, “Two-dimensional optical grating produced on PPV/V2O5-gel film by ultrashort pulsed laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3810–3817 (1991).
  18. C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).
  19. K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).
  20. J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).
  21. T. Holler, H. Bottner, A. Dumbs, “Polymer waveguide for sensor applications,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 308–315 (1992).
  22. E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).
  23. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

D. Shamrakov, R. Reisfeld, “Superradiant film laser operation in red perylimide dye doped silica-polymethylmeth-acrylate composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 47–53 (1993).

C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

1992 (4)

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).

1991 (2)

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

G. S. He, C. J. Wung, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, “Two-dimensional optical grating produced on PPV/V2O5-gel film by ultrashort pulsed laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3810–3817 (1991).

1990 (1)

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

Bahtat, M.

M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).

Bigger, S. W.

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

Billingham, N. C.

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

Birnie, D. P.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Bottner, H.

T. Holler, H. Bottner, A. Dumbs, “Polymer waveguide for sensor applications,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 308–315 (1992).

Boulton, J. M.

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Organic–inorganic optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1125–1127 (1994).

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

Burzynski, R.

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

Casstevens, M. K.

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

Colombo, P.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Davis, T. L.

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

Dumbs, A.

T. Holler, H. Bottner, A. Dumbs, “Polymer waveguide for sensor applications,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 308–315 (1992).

Fabes, B. D.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Ferrell, D. J.

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

Glaubitt, W.

K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).

Guglielmi, M.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Haruna, M.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

He, G. S.

Holler, T.

T. Holler, H. Bottner, A. Dumbs, “Polymer waveguide for sensor applications,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 308–315 (1992).

Hu, Y.

K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Imai, Y.

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

Iyoku, Y.

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

Jim, J. I.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Kakimoto, M.

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

Karasz, F. E.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

Khalil, A. N.

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

Kim, C.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Klein, D. L.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Klein, L. C.

L. C. Klein, Sol-Gel Technology (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988).

Krug, H.

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).

Lechner, C.

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Li, C.

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Lieberman, R. A.

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

Lou, L.

M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).

Mackenzie, J.

K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Mancinelli, D. E.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Mendoza, E. A.

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

Morikawa, A.

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

Morikawa, K.

K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).

Morita, K.

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Motakef, S.

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Organic–inorganic optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1125–1127 (1994).

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

Mugnier, J.

M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Oliveira, P. W.

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).

Pang, Y.

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

Park, C. K.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Pelli, S.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Prasad, P. N.

C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

G. S. He, C. J. Wung, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, “Two-dimensional optical grating produced on PPV/V2O5-gel film by ultrashort pulsed laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3810–3817 (1991).

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

Raymond, L. J.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Reisfeld, R.

D. Shamrakov, R. Reisfeld, “Superradiant film laser operation in red perylimide dye doped silica-polymethylmeth-acrylate composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 47–53 (1993).

Rigato, V.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Righini, G. C.

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

Roncore, R. L.

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

Rose, K.

K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).

Scheirs, J.

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

Schmidt, H.

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).

Serughetti, J.

M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).

Shamrakov, D.

D. Shamrakov, R. Reisfeld, “Superradiant film laser operation in red perylimide dye doped silica-polymethylmeth-acrylate composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 47–53 (1993).

Shim, H. K.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Stuppi, M. M.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Syracuse, S. J.

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

Taylor, D. J.

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Teowee, G.

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

Then, E. T. H.

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

Tiefensee, F.

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).

Tseng, J. Y.

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

Uhlmann, D. R.

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, D. R. Uhlmann, “Organic–inorganic optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1125–1127 (1994).

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

Weisenbach, L.

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, “The attenuation of sol-gel waveguide measured as a function of wavelength and sample age,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 603–639 (1994).

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

Weller-Brophy, L. A.

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).

Wolter, H.

K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).

Wung, C. J.

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

G. S. He, C. J. Wung, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, “Two-dimensional optical grating produced on PPV/V2O5-gel film by ultrashort pulsed laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3810–3817 (1991).

Xu, G. C.

Zelinski, B. J. J.

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, “The attenuation of sol-gel waveguide measured as a function of wavelength and sample age,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 603–639 (1994).

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

Zhang, Y.

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

Zieba, J.

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Shamrakov, R. Reisfeld, “Superradiant film laser operation in red perylimide dye doped silica-polymethylmeth-acrylate composite,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 47–53 (1993).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

A. Morikawa, Y. Iyoku, M. Kakimoto, Y. Imai, “Preparation of new polyimide–silica hybrid materials via the sol-gel process,” J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679–689 (1992).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Guglielmi, P. Colombo, D. E. Mancinelli, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, V. Rigato, “Characterization of laser-densified sol-gel films for the fabrication of planar and strip optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 641, 147–148 (1992).

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. (1)

J. Scheirs, S. W. Bigger, E. T. H. Then, N. C. Billingham, “The application of simultaneous chemiluminescence and thermal analysis for studying the glass transition and oxidative stability of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone),” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 31, 287–297 (1993).

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (3)

L. Weisenbach, T. L. Davis, B. J. J. Zelinski, R. L. Roncore, L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Processing of SiO2–TiO2 thin film waveguide,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 377–382 (1990).

K. Morikawa, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ultrasonic radiation on gelation and properties of ORMOSILs,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 693–698 (1992).

K. Rose, H. Wolter, W. Glaubitt, “Multifunctional acrylate alkoxysilanes for polymer materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 271, 731–736 (1992).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

K. S. Lee, C. J. Wung, P. N. Prasad, C. Kim, C. K. Park, J. I. Jim, H. K. Shim, “Sol-gel processed conjugated polymers for optical waveguides,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 224, 33–43 (1993).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer (2)

C. J. Wung, Y. Pang, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, “Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)-silica composites: a novel sol-gel processed nonlinear optical materials for optical waveguide,” Polymer 32, 605 (1991).

C. J. Wung, W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, P. N. Prasad, “Characterization of sol-gel processed poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/silica and V2O5 composites using waveguide Raman, Raman and FTIR,” Polymer 34, 1174–1178 (1993).

Other (11)

H. Krug, F. Tiefensee, P. W. Oliveira, H. Schmidt, “Organic–inorganic composite materials: optical properties of laser patterned and protective coated waveguides,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 448–455 (1992).

L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, “The attenuation of sol-gel waveguide measured as a function of wavelength and sample age,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 603–639 (1994).

L. C. Klein, Sol-Gel Technology (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988).

M. Bahtat, J. Mugnier, L. Lou, J. Serughetti, “Planar TiO2 waveguide by the sol-gel process: the relationship of structure to properties,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 173–177 (1992).

B. D. Fabes, D. J. Taylor, L. Weisenbach, M. M. Stuppi, D. L. Klein, L. J. Raymond, B. J. J. Zelinski, D. P. Birnie, “Laser processing of channel waveguide structure in sol-gel coatings,” in Sol-Gel Optics, J. D. Mackensie, D. R. Ulrich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1328, 319–328 (1990).

J. Zieba, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, M. K. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, “Sol-gel-processed inorganic oxide: organic polymer composites for second order nonlinear optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 403–409 (1992).

C. Li, J. Y. Tseng, K. Morita, C. Lechner, Y. Hu, J. Mackenzie, “Ormosils as matrices in inorganic–organic nanocomposites for various optical applications,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 410–419 (1992).

S. Motakef, J. M. Boulton, G. Teowee, D. R. Uhlmann, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Polyceram planar waveguide and optical properties of polyceram films,” in Sol-Gel Optics II, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1758, 432–445 (1992).

T. Holler, H. Bottner, A. Dumbs, “Polymer waveguide for sensor applications,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1774, 308–315 (1992).

E. A. Mendoza, D. J. Ferrell, S. J. Syracuse, A. N. Khalil, R. A. Lieberman, “Photolithography of integrated optic devices in sol-gel glasses,” in Sol-Gel Optics III, J. D. Mackensie, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2288, 580–588 (1994).

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Thickness and refractive-index change of spin-coated PVP films as a result of baking temperature. The indices are at 633 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Preserved weight percent of PVP films after they were soaked in ethanol for 30 min and baked at different temperatures to evaluate the thermal crosslinking ratio of PVP. A higher weight percent represents better crosslinking.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption spectra of PVP films baked at different temperatures for 1 h.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive-index change of the PVP/SiO2 waveguide with baking temperature. The indices are at 633 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical propagation loss of the PVP/SiO2 waveguide baked at different temperature for 5 min, as measured at 633 and 812 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Long-term thermal stability of the 50% PVP/SiO2 waveguide.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Refractive-index dependence on temperature in the 50% PVP/SiO2 waveguide. The indices were measured at elevated temperature and at 633 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Refractive-index change of the 50% PVP/SiO2 waveguide. The indices were measured after they were cooled down from different baking temperatures for 10 min and at 633 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Optical propagation loss change of the 50% PVP/SiO2 waveguide at 633 nm. Indices were measured after they were cooled down from different baking temperatures for 10 min.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Illustration of the laser-densification setup.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Photograph of the channel waveguide being prepared by the use of the local laser-densification technique and being excited by the edge coupling.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Photograph of a curved channel waveguide being prepared by the use of the local-densification technique and being excited by the edge coupling.

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