Abstract

Optical properties and taper profiles of 1.31/1.55-μm wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) fiber couplers have been experimentally analyzed. A newly developed microheater was used for the fabrication in air. The elongation lengths were controlled so that the fourth coupling peak would reach the 1.55-μm wavelength. The wavelength difference Δλ between the peak coupling wavelength of 1.55 μm and that around 1.31 μm decreased linearly at each fusion temperature with the fusion time. At each fusion temperature, the Δλ value decreased linearly with the elongation length and decreased exponentially with the neck width. The Δλ value and the taper shape at the minimum limit of the degree of fusion were estimated. The fabrication condition and the taper shape for 1.31-μm and 1.55-μm WDM coupling were also analyzed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).
  2. Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 465–467 (1992).
  3. Y. Takeuchi, M. Horiguchi, “Microheater control of wavelength-flattened fiber coupler properties,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1029–1034 (1994).
  4. Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Coupler type multi/demultiplexer composed of different parameter fibers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 575–576 (1991).
  5. R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
  6. M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical coupler wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).
  7. Y. Takeuchi, “Thermodynamic analysis of WDM fiber couplers fabricated using a microheater,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

1994

1992

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 465–467 (1992).

1991

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Coupler type multi/demultiplexer composed of different parameter fibers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 575–576 (1991).

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).

1988

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical coupler wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).

1987

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).

Birks, T. A.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).

Eisenmann, M.

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical coupler wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).

Horiguchi, M.

Kenny, R. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).

Noda, J.

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 465–467 (1992).

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Coupler type multi/demultiplexer composed of different parameter fibers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 575–576 (1991).

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).

Oakley, K. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).

Okamoto, K.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Takeuchi, M. Horiguchi, “Microheater control of wavelength-flattened fiber coupler properties,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1029–1034 (1994).

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 465–467 (1992).

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Coupler type multi/demultiplexer composed of different parameter fibers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 575–576 (1991).

Y. Takeuchi, “Thermodynamic analysis of WDM fiber couplers fabricated using a microheater,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

Weidel, E.

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical coupler wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).

Yokohama, I.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Coupler type multi/demultiplexer composed of different parameter fibers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 575–576 (1991).

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Takeuchi, J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 465–467 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol.

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Fiber coupler fabrication with automatic fusion-elongation process for low excess loss and high coupling ratio accuracy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 910–915 (1987).

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical coupler wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 113–119 (1988).

Other

Y. Takeuchi, “Thermodynamic analysis of WDM fiber couplers fabricated using a microheater,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the microheater developed in this paper, showing a pair of fibers inserted for fusion and tapering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the center temperature of the microheater on applied current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the automatic fiber-coupler fabrication apparatus with a microheater. LD, laser diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical taper profile of a WDM coupler with a relatively small degree of fusion, fabricated with a microheater. The vertical axis is logarithmic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of taper length L t on elongation length L e .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of neck width W n on elongation length L e .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ on fusion time at fusion temperatures of 1550, 1600, and 1650 °C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical dependence of the coupling ratio and excess loss on wavelength. The fusion conditions were at 1650 °C for 4 min (the measured fusion time).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ on elongation length L e at fusion temperatures of 1550, 1600, and 1650 °C.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ on neck width W n at fusion temperatures of 1550, 1600, and 1650 °C. The horizontal axis is logarithmic.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of fusion time on fusion temperature for a peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ of 240 nm, as determined from Fig. 7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of elongation length L e on fusion temperature for a peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ of 240 nm, as determined from Fig. 9.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dependence of neck width W n on fusion temperature for a peak coupling wavelength difference Δλ of 240 nm, as determined from Fig. 10.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fiber Parameters

Equations (14)

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L t = L 0 + L e ,
W ( z ) = W 0   exp ( L e / 2 L h ) z < L h / 2 ,
= α W 0   exp ( z / L h ) L h / 2 < z < ( L e + L h ) / 2,
α = exp [ ( L e + L h ) / 2 L h ] ,
L h = 8.9.
W 01 = 231 ,
L h 3 = 8.17.
1550 1310 = 240.
A ( 1.3 min , 314  nm ) .
B ( 46  mm , 310  nm ) .
C ( 15  μm , 318  nm ) .
L e 0 = 46  mm ,
W n 0 = 15  μm,
Δ λ 0 = 314  nm .

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