Abstract

A method is described that provides absolute frequency stabilization and calibration of the signal and idler waves generated by an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method makes use of a He–Ne stabilized transfer cavity (TC) to control the frequencies of the cw sources used to seed both the pump laser and OPO cavity. The TC serves as a stable calibration source for the signal and idler waves by providing marker fringes as the seed laser is scanned. Additionally, an acoustic-optic modulator (AOM) is used to shift the OPO seed laser's frequency before locking it onto the TC. The sidebands of the AOM are tunable over more than one free spectral range of the TC, thereby permitting stabilization of the signal and idler waves at any frequency. A±25-MHz residual error in the absolute frequency stabilities of the pump, signal, and idler waves is experimentally demonstrated, which is roughly 30% of the 160-MHz near-transform-limited linewidths of the signal and idler pulses.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
  2. R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, P. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), pp. 47–160.
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  5. S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
  6. R. C. Eckardt, C. D. Nabors, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator frequency tuning and control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 646–667 (1991).
  7. D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).
  8. A. Fix, T. Schroder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
  9. J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic and nonlinear optical applications of a tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1765–1777 (1993).
  10. J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, “Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).
  11. A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).
  12. K. Kato, “Second harmonic generation to 2048Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
  13. Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).
  14. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
  15. W. R. Bosenberg, D. R. Guyer, “Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
  16. W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).
  17. L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).
  18. Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).
  19. J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, “Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).
  20. A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).
  21. D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
  22. T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, M. S. Bowers, “Frequency shifts in injection seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994).
  23. F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).
  24. E. S. Cassedy, M. Jain, “A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290–1301 (1979).
  25. H. Komine, “Average-power scaling for ultraviolet-pumped β-barium borate and lithium triborate optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1751–1757 (1993).
  26. O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.
  27. W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
  28. T. W. Hansch, B. Couillard, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
  29. E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
  30. T. M. Niebauer, J. E. Faller, H. M. Godwin, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, “Frequency stabilization measurements on polarization-stabilized He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1285–1289 (1988).
  31. B. Zhou, T. J. Kane, G. J. Dixon, R. L. Byer, “Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 62–64 (1985).
  32. T. J. Kane, R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).
  33. R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilization of a cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1973).
  34. J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, “Dye laser spectrometer for ultrahigh spectral resolution: design and performance,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1686–1694 (1982).
  35. I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).
  36. D. S. Elliott, S. J. Smith, “Experimental synthesis of phase-diffusing optical fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1927–1939 (1988).
  37. Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable single-axial-mode operation of an unstable-resonator Nd:YAG oscillator by injection locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).
  38. L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 940–942 (1985).
  39. R. L. Schmitt, L. A. Rahn, “Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system,” Appl. Opt. 25, 629–633 (1986).
  40. R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).
  41. P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

1994

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, M. S. Bowers, “Frequency shifts in injection seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994).

1993

1992

I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).

1991

R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).

R. C. Eckardt, C. D. Nabors, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator frequency tuning and control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 646–667 (1991).

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, “Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).

1990

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

1989

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

1988

L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

D. S. Elliott, S. J. Smith, “Experimental synthesis of phase-diffusing optical fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1927–1939 (1988).

T. M. Niebauer, J. E. Faller, H. M. Godwin, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, “Frequency stabilization measurements on polarization-stabilized He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1285–1289 (1988).

1986

R. L. Schmitt, L. A. Rahn, “Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system,” Appl. Opt. 25, 629–633 (1986).

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

K. Kato, “Second harmonic generation to 2048Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).

1985

1982

1980

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable single-axial-mode operation of an unstable-resonator Nd:YAG oscillator by injection locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).

T. W. Hansch, B. Couillard, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).

1979

E. S. Cassedy, M. Jain, “A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290–1301 (1979).

1973

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilization of a cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1973).

1969

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, “Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).

1965

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).

Alford, W. J.

Andresen, P.

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

Ashworth, S. H.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

Barger, R. L.

T. M. Niebauer, J. E. Faller, H. M. Godwin, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, “Frequency stabilization measurements on polarization-stabilized He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1285–1289 (1988).

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilization of a cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1973).

Bergmann, K.

I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).

Beushausen, V.

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, “Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).

Bosenberg, W. R.

W. R. Bosenberg, D. R. Guyer, “Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).

L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).

Bowers, M. S.

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, C. D. Nabors, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator frequency tuning and control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 646–667 (1991).

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

B. Zhou, T. J. Kane, G. J. Dixon, R. L. Byer, “Efficient, frequency-stable laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 62–64 (1985).

T. J. Kane, R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, “Stable single-axial-mode operation of an unstable-resonator Nd:YAG oscillator by injection locking,” Opt. Lett. 5, 96–98 (1980).

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, P. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), pp. 47–160.

Cassedy, E. S.

E. S. Cassedy, M. Jain, “A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290–1301 (1979).

Chen, C.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

Cheng, F.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

Cheng, L. K.

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).

L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).

Cheng, Z.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

Couillard, B.

T. W. Hansch, B. Couillard, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).

Crim, F. F.

R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).

Danielmeyer, H. G.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, “Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).

Dixon, G. J.

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, C. D. Nabors, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator frequency tuning and control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 646–667 (1991).

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

Elliott, D. S.

Faller, J. E.

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

Farrell, J. T.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

Fix, A.

A. Fix, T. Schroder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).

Giordmaine, J.A.

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).

Giuliani, G.

Godwin, H. M.

Guyer, D. R.

Hall, J. L.

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch, B. Couillard, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).

Haub, J. G.

Hausler, D.

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

Helmcke, J.

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

Huisken, F.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

Jain, M.

E. S. Cassedy, M. Jain, “A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290–1301 (1979).

Jiang, A.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

Jiang, A. D.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

Johnson, M. J.

Jung, P.

I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).

Kane, T. J.

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Second harmonic generation to 2048Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).

Komine, H.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Kulcke, A.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

Laush, C.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

Lee, S. A.

Lehmann, K. K.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

Lin, Q.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

Lisy, J. M.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

Littler, I. C. M.

I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).

Lulf, H. W.

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

Masuda, H.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

Miller, R. C.

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).

Nabors, C. D.

Nesbitt, D. J.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).

O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Niebauer, T. M.

Nolting, J.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

Orr, B. J.

Park, Y. K.

Pelouch, W. S.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

Plusquellic, D. F.

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).

O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Rahn, L. A.

Raymond, T. D.

Riedle, E.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Rothe, E. W.

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

Schmitt, R. L.

Schroder, T.

Schröder, T.

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).

Scoles, G.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

Scott, J. L.

R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 9.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, S. J.

Sorem, M. S.

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilization of a cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1973).

Tang, C. L.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).

L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).

Timmermans, J. H.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

Vander Wal, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).

Voelkel, D.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

Votava, O.

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).

O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

Wallenstein, R.

A. Fix, T. Schroder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, “Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 17, pp. 437–469.

Zheng, Y.

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

Zhou, B.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, “Frequency stabilization of a cw dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573–575 (1973).

J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, “Continuously tunable, injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718–1720 (1991).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 355 nm by a single-axial-mode pulsed source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014–2016 (1988).

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, C. L. Tang, “Ultraviolet optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 13–15 (1989).

L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable optical parametric oscillation in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 175–177 (1988).

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, “Frequency control of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator by radiation injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171–173 (1969).

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, “New infrared injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with high energy and narrow bandwidth output,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805–807 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. S. Cassedy, M. Jain, “A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290–1301 (1979).

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, “Barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196–1199 (1989).

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, β-BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).

K. Kato, “Second harmonic generation to 2048Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).

J. Chem. Phys.

R. L. Vander Wal, J. L. Scott, F. F. Crim, “State resolved photodissociation of vibrationally excited water: rotations, stretching vibrations, and relative cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1859–1867 (1991).

P. Andresen, V. Beushausen, D. Hausler, H. W. Lulf, E. W. Rothe, “Strong propensity rules in the photodissociation of a single rotational quantum state of vibrationally excited H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1429–1430 (1985).

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Photodissociation dynamics in quantum state-selected clusters: a test of the one-atom cage effect in Ar-H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6356–6358 (1994).

J. Cryst. Growth

A. Jiang, F. Cheng, Q. Lin, Z. Cheng, Y. Zheng, “Flux growth of large single crystals of low temperature phase barium metaborate,” J. Cryst. Growth 79, 963–969 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Optoelektron.

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-barium borate and lithium borate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared,” Laser Optoelektron. 23, 106–110 (1991).

Opt. Commun.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).

I. C. M. Littler, P. Jung, K. Bergmann, “The birefringent cavity: laser frequency stabilization with a novel tuning scheme,” Opt. Commun. 87, 61–68 (1992).

T. W. Hansch, B. Couillard, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).

Proc. IEEE

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).

Other

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, P. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), pp. 47–160.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 17, pp. 437–469.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 9.

O. Votava, E. Riedle, D. F. Plusquellic, D. J. Nesbitt, “Single mode ring optical parametric oscillation via cw injection seeding,” submitted to J. Chem. Phys.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout of the OPO frequency stabilization scheme, illustrating the polarization-stabilized He–Ne transfer cavity and the cw lasers to injection seed the Nd:YAG pump laser and OPO cavity. The AOM is used to frequency shift the OPO seed laser up (or down) by as much as one optical fringe of the TC, thereby permitting frequency lock points at any signal or idler frequency. FPI, Fabry–Perot interferometer, THG, third-harmonic generator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency response functions of the cw Nd:YAG laser and dye laser as they are scanned through transmission maxima of the TC. Portions of the error signals recorded over 10-min periods are superimposed on the DBM signals to illustrate the lock sensitivities. The finesse of the cavity at 1.064 μm is slightly higher than at the dye laser color and results in a narrower fringe and smaller lock error. The asymmetry in the 1.064-μm fringe is a result of beam alignment through the TC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nd:YAG seed laser's error signal and integrated error signal shown as a function of time after start-up of the oscillator, first without and then with the thermoelectric cooler switched on. By driving the error signal to zero, the integrated error signal provides the bias voltage to keep the seed laser locked onto the TC. The cooling power is regulated in proportion to the magnitude of the integrated error signal. The oscillations are a result of the slow response (15 min) of the seed laser frequency to the thermal corrections of the cooler.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission signals of the OPO's signal and seed lasers as the seed laser is scanned through a cavity resonance of a high-finesse (FSR/Δν FWHM ∼ 150) 2 GHz étalon. The center-frequency mismatch over 30 such scans is 105 ± 15 MHz, with the signal wave shifted to the lower-frequency side of the seed source. The red shift is believed to be a result of the strong pump field used (100 MW/cm2) and to give rise to the asymmetry in the lineshape as a result of longitudinal mode pulling in the oscillator cavity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Long-term frequency drift measurements of the Nd:YAG pump laser. The iodine absorption spectra and marker fringes of the cw dye laser are overlapped in all four idler scans to within ±1 MHz. The photoacoustic spectra of acetylene are recorded with the idler wave by scanning the dye laser and therefore are sensitive to the frequency drift of the pump laser source. The spectra on the left were taken 2 h apart with the seed laser unlocked. The spectra on the right were measured on consecutive days with the seed laser locked. The measured line-center shift is less than ±25 MHz.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Long-term frequency drift of the idler wave as measured in a sub-Doppler IR/UV double-resonance vibrationally mediated photodissociation study40 of H2O in a slit jet. The seed lasers for both the Nd:YAG pump laser and OPO cavities are locked onto the TC. The signal illustrated is the OH fluorescence intensity following the H2O photolysis at 193 nm and OH excitation at 307 nm. The idler frequency is locked to the side of a rovibrational overtone transition of H2O having a sub-Doppler line width of 250 MHz. The idler drift is less than ±25 MHz over the one-hour period. The higher-frequency deviations of ±10 MHz are likely to be a better estimate of the idler stability because the low-frequency oscillation of the signal is believed to be a result of idler power changes with a smaller contribution from H2O gas-density changes in the probe region. Hence this ±25 MHz represents a conservative upper limit on the idler frequency excursions.

Equations (1)

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ν / P = ν 1.064  μm P 0 ( n He Ne n 1.064  μm ) .

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