Abstract

We have demonstrated and characterized a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser under continuous operation for over 7 billion shots. Through periodic monitoring of the laser's vital signs, the system dynamics were decoupled to identify the sources of degradation. The initial and the final pump-laser diode wavelengths and powers were measured and compared. No evidence of an accumulative effect leading to optical damage at a fluence lower than the single-shot threshold was observed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Abshire, J. C. Smith, B. E. Shutz, “Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS),” abstract of paper presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendi, Japan, 1994.
  2. F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).
  3. Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division, “Enhanced damage-resistant optics for spaceflight laser systems—workshop findings and recommendations,” NASA Document (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991).
  4. M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I. L. Pocotilo, “Multishot laser damage in transparent solids: theory of accumulation effect,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 653–667 (1994).
  5. R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “A simple high efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), pp. 402–404.
  6. R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “Simple high-efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Q-switched laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 465–467 (1995).
  7. J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).
  8. M. A. Krainak, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1995).

1995 (1)

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, J. C. Smith, B. E. Shutz, “Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS),” abstract of paper presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendi, Japan, 1994.

Afzal, R. S.

R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “Simple high-efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Q-switched laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 465–467 (1995).

R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “A simple high efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), pp. 402–404.

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).

Atherton, L. J.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Dallas, J. L.

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).

DeMarco, F. P.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Koldunov, M. F.

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I. L. Pocotilo, “Multishot laser damage in transparent solids: theory of accumulation effect,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 653–667 (1994).

Kozlowski, M. R.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Krainak, M. A.

M. A. Krainak, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1995).

Manenkov, A. A.

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I. L. Pocotilo, “Multishot laser damage in transparent solids: theory of accumulation effect,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 653–667 (1994).

Pocotilo, I. L.

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I. L. Pocotilo, “Multishot laser damage in transparent solids: theory of accumulation effect,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 653–667 (1994).

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Selker, M. D.

R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “Simple high-efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Q-switched laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 465–467 (1995).

R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “A simple high efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), pp. 402–404.

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).

Sheehan, L. M.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Shutz, B. E.

J. B. Abshire, J. C. Smith, B. E. Shutz, “Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS),” abstract of paper presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendi, Japan, 1994.

Smith, J. C.

J. B. Abshire, J. C. Smith, B. E. Shutz, “Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS),” abstract of paper presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendi, Japan, 1994.

Staggs, M. C.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Stephen, M. A.

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, M. A. Stephen, “Accelerated GLAS exposure station,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 66–69 (1994).

M. A. Krainak, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (personal communication, 1995).

J. B. Abshire, J. C. Smith, B. E. Shutz, “Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS),” abstract of paper presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendi, Japan, 1994.

F. Rainer, F. P. DeMarco, M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, L. J. Atherton, L. M. Sheehan, “A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1993, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2114, 9–24 (1993).

Office of Safety and Mission Quality, Technical Standards Division, “Enhanced damage-resistant optics for spaceflight laser systems—workshop findings and recommendations,” NASA Document (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991).

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I. L. Pocotilo, “Multishot laser damage in transparent solids: theory of accumulation effect,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2428, 653–667 (1994).

R. S. Afzal, M. D. Selker, “A simple high efficiency TEM00 diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), pp. 402–404.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of Accelerated GLAS Exposure Station (AGES). HR, high reflector; TFP, thin-film polarizer; QS, Q switch; OC, output coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AGES results: (a) energy per pulse versus shots, (b) laser pulse width versus shots, (c) coolant temperature versus shots.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature tuning of the pump-laser diode.

Equations (1)

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Intracavity  Fluence = 2 ( 1 + R 1 R ) E out π r 2 ,

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