Abstract

Three-stage optical interconnection networks for use in massively parallel processors are proposed. Wavelength-division- and space-division-multiplexing switches used in these networks are described, and free-space optics to assist in the construction of networks that are small and provide high throughput are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).
  2. V. E. Benes, Mathematical Theory of Connecting Networks and Telephone Traffic (Academic, New York, 1965), Chap. 4.
  3. J. Jahns, M. J. Murdocca, “Crossover networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3155–3160 (1988).
  4. H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).
  5. S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774–1779 (1991).
  6. T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Haterloy, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase grating,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
  7. S. Kawai, H. Kurita, “Design of electro-photonic computer-networks with non-blocking and self-routing functions,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.a, 1995), pp. 263–265.
  8. J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
  9. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
  10. S. Kawai, “Electro-photonic interconnection networks for parallel processing,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  11. H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
  12. C. Wu, T. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–702 (1980).
  13. H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.
  14. S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).
  15. I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).
  16. S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.
  17. S. Kawai, H. Kurita, Y. Ogura, “Free-space electro-photonic networks and their alignment-free packaging technologies for massively parallel computers,” in Fifth Microop-tics Conference, Vol. AP951224 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 84–87.
  18. I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 241–242.
  19. S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.
  20. H. Kurita, S. Kawai, “Optical demultiplexing modules using free-space optics,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 225–226.

1995

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

1994

1991

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774–1779 (1991).

1989

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).

1988

1980

C. Wu, T. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–702 (1980).

1971

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).

1953

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

Araki, S.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.

Beckman, M. G.

Benes, V. E.

V. E. Benes, Mathematical Theory of Connecting Networks and Telephone Traffic (Academic, New York, 1965), Chap. 4.

Cloonan, T. J.

Clos, C.

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

Crisci, R. J.

Feng, T.

C. Wu, T. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–702 (1980).

Haterloy, S. J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Huang, A.

Ishida, T.

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

Jahns, J.

Kajita, M.

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

Kasahara, K.

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Kawai, S.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774–1779 (1991).

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, “Design of electro-photonic computer-networks with non-blocking and self-routing functions,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.a, 1995), pp. 263–265.

S. Kawai, “Electro-photonic interconnection networks for parallel processing,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, “Optical demultiplexing modules using free-space optics,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 225–226.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, Y. Ogura, “Free-space electro-photonic networks and their alignment-free packaging technologies for massively parallel computers,” in Fifth Microop-tics Conference, Vol. AP951224 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 84–87.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Kurihara, K.

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Kurita, H.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, Y. Ogura, “Free-space electro-photonic networks and their alignment-free packaging technologies for massively parallel computers,” in Fifth Microop-tics Conference, Vol. AP951224 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 84–87.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, “Optical demultiplexing modules using free-space optics,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 225–226.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, “Design of electro-photonic computer-networks with non-blocking and self-routing functions,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.a, 1995), pp. 263–265.

Kurita, K.

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.

Lentine, A. L.

Matoba, A.

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

McCormick, F. B.

Miyoshi, K.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Morrison, R. L.

Murdocca, M. J.

Novotny, R. A.

Numai, T.

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

Ogura, I.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Ogura, Y.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, Y. Ogura, “Free-space electro-photonic networks and their alignment-free packaging technologies for massively parallel computers,” in Fifth Microop-tics Conference, Vol. AP951224 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 84–87.

Okayama, H.

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

Redmond, I.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 241–242.

Richards, G. W.

Sasian, J. M.

Schenfeld, E.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 241–242.

Shibuya, R.

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).

Sugimoto, Y.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Walker, S. L.

Wojcik, M. J.

Wu, C.

C. Wu, T. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–702 (1980).

Yoshikawa, T.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

Appl. Opt.

Bell Sys. Tech. J.

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

IEEE Trans. Comput

C. Wu, T. Feng, “On a class of multistage interconnection networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29, 694–702 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Comput.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).

J. Lightwave Technol.

H. Okayama, A. Matoba, R. Shibuya, T. Ishida, “Optical switch matrix with simplified N × N tree structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1023–1028 (1989).

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774–1779 (1991).

Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, “Optical switching networks using free-space wavelength-division multiplexing interconnections,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 81–84 (1995).

I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, S. Kawai, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, “A multiple wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array for optical interconnection,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E78-C, 22–27 (1995).

Other

S. Kawai, S. Araki, H. Kurita, T. Numai, K. Kasahara, “Multistage optical interconnection networks using VSTEPs and microoptics,” in Fourth Microoptics Conference/Eleventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Systems, Vol. AP931223 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 328–331.

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, Y. Ogura, “Free-space electro-photonic networks and their alignment-free packaging technologies for massively parallel computers,” in Fifth Microop-tics Conference, Vol. AP951224 of Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 84–87.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 241–242.

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, S. Araki, K. Kurita, “Alignment-free packaging for free-space optics using electro-photonic multi-chip module technologies,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 101–102.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, “Optical demultiplexing modules using free-space optics,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 225–226.

H. Kurita, S. Kawai, I. Ogura, K. Kurihara, T. Yoshikawa, S. Araki, K. Miyoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kasahara, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical interconnections using vertical-cavity surface-emitting multi-wavelength laser-diodes,” in Japan Optics, Technical Digest Series (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1994), pp. 213–214.

V. E. Benes, Mathematical Theory of Connecting Networks and Telephone Traffic (Academic, New York, 1965), Chap. 4.

S. Kawai, “Electro-photonic interconnection networks for parallel processing,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

S. Kawai, H. Kurita, “Design of electro-photonic computer-networks with non-blocking and self-routing functions,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.a, 1995), pp. 263–265.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (21)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed network with strictly nonblocking and self-routing functions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Network structure for N = 32 and m = 4.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maximum network size versus switch size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Minimum number of switches for networks. SW, switch; NW′s, networks.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Data flows for a first-stage self-routing switch.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Data flows for the second type of self-routing switches (see text).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Data and control flows for network: MUX, multiplexer; LD′s, laser diodes; PD′s, photodiodes; SW, switch; CTL, control.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Structure of four pairs of 1 × 4 WDM switches.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Structure of a 64-ch SDM crossbar switch.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Hybrid 2 × 4 f imaging optics.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Structure of an m × l SDM switch.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Optical power budget for a 1 × 8 WDM switch.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Focused four beams with different wavelengths.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Optical size per channel for SDM crossbar switches.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Concept behind electrophotonic multichip-module technologies.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Coupling losses versus positions of PML′s from the optical axis.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Light beams separated by a grating.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Four-beam WDM interconnection waveform.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Optics for a SDM crossbar switch.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Fabricated 8 × 8 MMF array.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Imaged pattern in an SDM crossbar switch.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimentally Obtained Alignment Tolerances and Alignment-Accuracies Obtained with Electrophotonic Multichip-Module Technologies

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k = ( j 1 ) m + 1 + Int [ m ( i 1 ) N ]    ,
l = j N m Int [ m ( i 1 ) N ]    ,
r = q + m N Int ( p 1 m )    ,
s = p m   Int ( p 1 m )    .

Metrics