Abstract

A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
  2. I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed, reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Proceedings of the Optical Computing Conference 1994 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, U.K., 1995), pp. 215–218.
  3. S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.
  4. V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ACM International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS’94) (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994).
  5. V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “NetSim—a tool for modeling the performance of circuit switched multicomputer networks,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Modeling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).
  6. V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Acomparative performance study of an interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. I, pp. 191–195.
  7. Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Parallel graph contraction with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. III, pp. 258–265.
  8. V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “A heuristic approach for embed- ding communication patterns in an interconnection cached parallel processing network,” in Proceedings of the IPPS’93 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 291–298.
  9. V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Combining message switching and reconfiguration in the interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks(ISPAN’94), (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 143–150.
  10. Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “MICA: a mapped interconnec- tion-cached architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 80–89.
  11. Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Total exchange on a reconfigu-rable architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (SPDP) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 2–11.
  12. Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “New algorithms for matrix operations with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (International Society of Computers and their Applications, Raleigh, N.C., 1994), pp. 836–841.
  13. E. Schenfeld, “Massively parallel processing with optical interconnections: what can be, should be and must not be done by optics,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 16–18.
  14. G. S. Almasi, A. Gottlieb, Highly Parallel Computing, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings, New York, 1994).
  15. C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).
  16. M. R. Feldman, S. C. Esener, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Comparison between optical and electrical interconnects based on power and speed considerations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1742–1751 (1988).
  17. D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989).
  18. “STRINGS—Bull serial link technology,” Bull Corp. data sheet (Bull Corporation, Paris, 1995).
  19. “BULLIT—Bull serial link technology,” Bull Corp. data sheet (Bull Corporation, Paris, 1995).
  20. “Field programmable interconnection,” Aptix Corp. data sheet (Aptix Corporation, San Jose, Calif., 1994).
  21. D. Feitelson, L. Rudolph, E. Schenfeld, “An optical interconnection network with 3-D layout and distributed control,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 54–65 (1990).
  22. B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).
  23. R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), Subsection 5.2, pp. 75–80.
  24. J. Jahns, S. H. Lee, eds., Optical Computing Hardware (Academic, New York, 1994), Chap. 5, pp. 113–136 (PML's); Chap. 4, pp. 137–168 (DML's).
  25. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
  26. B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.
  27. T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

1991 (1)

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1953 (1)

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

Almasi, G. S.

G. S. Almasi, A. Gottlieb, Highly Parallel Computing, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings, New York, 1994).

Araki, S.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Beckman, M. G.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), Subsection 5.2, pp. 75–80.

Cloonan, T. J.

Clos, C.

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

Crisci, R. J.

Ebeling, K. J.

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Eberling, K. J.

B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).

Esener, S. C.

Feitelson, D.

D. Feitelson, L. Rudolph, E. Schenfeld, “An optical interconnection network with 3-D layout and distributed control,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 54–65 (1990).

Feldman, M. R.

Fiedler, U.

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Florez, L. T.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

Gottlieb, A.

G. S. Almasi, A. Gottlieb, Highly Parallel Computing, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings, New York, 1994).

Guest, C. C.

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ACM International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS’94) (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994).

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “NetSim—a tool for modeling the performance of circuit switched multicomputer networks,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Modeling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Acomparative performance study of an interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. I, pp. 191–195.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “A heuristic approach for embed- ding communication patterns in an interconnection cached parallel processing network,” in Proceedings of the IPPS’93 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 291–298.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Combining message switching and reconfiguration in the interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks(ISPAN’94), (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 143–150.

Hackbarth, T.

B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).

Harbison, J. P.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Iga, K.

T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

Jewell, J. L.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

Kajita, M.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Kasahara, K.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Koyama, F.

T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

Kubota, K.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Kurihara, K.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Lee, S. H.

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

Lentine, A. L.

Lyuu, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “MICA: a mapped interconnec- tion-cached architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 80–89.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Total exchange on a reconfigu-rable architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (SPDP) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 2–11.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “New algorithms for matrix operations with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (International Society of Computers and their Applications, Raleigh, N.C., 1994), pp. 836–841.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Parallel graph contraction with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. III, pp. 258–265.

McCormick, F. B.

Miller, D. A. B.

Moller, B.

B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Morrison, R. L.

Mukaihara, T.

T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

Novotny, R. A.

Panzlaff, K.

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Redmond, I.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed, reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Proceedings of the Optical Computing Conference 1994 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, U.K., 1995), pp. 215–218.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Rudolph, L.

D. Feitelson, L. Rudolph, E. Schenfeld, “An optical interconnection network with 3-D layout and distributed control,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 54–65 (1990).

Sasian, J. M.

Schenfeld, E.

D. Feitelson, L. Rudolph, E. Schenfeld, “An optical interconnection network with 3-D layout and distributed control,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 54–65 (1990).

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed, reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Proceedings of the Optical Computing Conference 1994 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, U.K., 1995), pp. 215–218.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ACM International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS’94) (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994).

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Parallel graph contraction with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. III, pp. 258–265.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “A heuristic approach for embed- ding communication patterns in an interconnection cached parallel processing network,” in Proceedings of the IPPS’93 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 291–298.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Acomparative performance study of an interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. I, pp. 191–195.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “NetSim—a tool for modeling the performance of circuit switched multicomputer networks,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Modeling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “New algorithms for matrix operations with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (International Society of Computers and their Applications, Raleigh, N.C., 1994), pp. 836–841.

E. Schenfeld, “Massively parallel processing with optical interconnections: what can be, should be and must not be done by optics,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 16–18.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Total exchange on a reconfigu-rable architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (SPDP) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 2–11.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “MICA: a mapped interconnec- tion-cached architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 80–89.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Combining message switching and reconfiguration in the interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks(ISPAN’94), (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 143–150.

Scherer, A.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

Suzaki, T.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

Walker, S. L.

Wipiejewski, T.

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Wojcik, M. J.

Zeeb, E.

B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Mukaihara, F. Koyama, K. Iga, “Stress effect for polarization control of surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 28, 555 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Moller, E. Zeeb, T. Hackbarth, K. J. Eberling, “High speed performance of 2-D vertical-cavity laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1056–1058 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (20)

“STRINGS—Bull serial link technology,” Bull Corp. data sheet (Bull Corporation, Paris, 1995).

“BULLIT—Bull serial link technology,” Bull Corp. data sheet (Bull Corporation, Paris, 1995).

“Field programmable interconnection,” Aptix Corp. data sheet (Aptix Corporation, San Jose, Calif., 1994).

D. Feitelson, L. Rudolph, E. Schenfeld, “An optical interconnection network with 3-D layout and distributed control,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 54–65 (1990).

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), Subsection 5.2, pp. 75–80.

J. Jahns, S. H. Lee, eds., Optical Computing Hardware (Academic, New York, 1994), Chap. 5, pp. 113–136 (PML's); Chap. 4, pp. 137–168 (DML's).

B. Moller, U. Fiedler, T. Wipiejewski, E. Zeeb, K. Panzlaff, K. J. Ebeling, “Generation of 40 Gbit/s RZ data rates by gain switching of vertical-cavity laser diodes,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (Swiss Electrotechnical, Zurich, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 409–412.

I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, “A distributed, reconfigurable free-space optical interconnection network for massively parallel processing architectures,” in Proceedings of the Optical Computing Conference 1994 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, U.K., 1995), pp. 215–218.

S. Araki, M. Kajita, K. Kasahara, K. Kubota, K. Kurihara, I. Redmond, E. Schenfeld, T. Suzaki, “Massively optical interconnections (MOI): interconnections for massively parallel processing systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 8–10.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Performance analysis of a synchronous, circuit-switched interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Eighth ACM International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS’94) (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1994).

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “NetSim—a tool for modeling the performance of circuit switched multicomputer networks,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Modeling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Acomparative performance study of an interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. I, pp. 191–195.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Parallel graph contraction with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Third International Conference on Parallel Processing(ICPP) (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994), Vol. III, pp. 258–265.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “A heuristic approach for embed- ding communication patterns in an interconnection cached parallel processing network,” in Proceedings of the IPPS’93 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 291–298.

V. Gupta, E. Schenfeld, “Combining message switching and reconfiguration in the interconnection cached network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks(ISPAN’94), (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 143–150.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “MICA: a mapped interconnec- tion-cached architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 80–89.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “Total exchange on a reconfigu-rable architecture,” in Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (SPDP) (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 2–11.

Y.-D. Lyuu, E. Schenfeld, “New algorithms for matrix operations with applications to a reconfigurable parallel architecture,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (International Society of Computers and their Applications, Raleigh, N.C., 1994), pp. 836–841.

E. Schenfeld, “Massively parallel processing with optical interconnections: what can be, should be and must not be done by optics,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 16–18.

G. S. Almasi, A. Gottlieb, Highly Parallel Computing, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings, New York, 1994).

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