Abstract

Free-space digital optical systems have demonstrated the capability to provide thousands of optical connections between optoelectronic chips. This dense concentration of channels creates substantial challenges in monitoring individual connections for diagnostic purposes without compromising performance. From the concept of stroboscopic techniques, we have designed and constructed a multichannel optical diagnostic tool that operates analogously to an electronic-sampling oscilloscope. The tool is economically constructed by the use of commercially available video cameras and video-enhanced personal computers. An integrated software application operates the tool and displays multiple channel waveforms. We demonstrate the oscilloscope-sampling optical waveforms of a two-dimensional optoelectronic modulator array operating at data rates from 0.5 to 4 Gbits/s.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
  2. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
  3. F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).
  4. A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).
  5. J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69–78 (1986).
  6. H. Kolner, D. M. Bloom, “Electrooptic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79–94 (1986).

1994 (2)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

1986 (2)

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69–78 (1986).

H. Kolner, D. M. Bloom, “Electrooptic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79–94 (1986).

Beckman, M. G.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

Bloom, D. M.

H. Kolner, D. M. Bloom, “Electrooptic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79–94 (1986).

Brubaker, J. L.

Buchholz, D. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Kerbis, E.

Kolner, H.

H. Kolner, D. M. Bloom, “Electrooptic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79–94 (1986).

Kopf, R. F.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Mourou, G.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69–78 (1986).

Novotny, R. A.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Tooley, F. A. P.

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69–78 (1986).

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).

Wojcik, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Optics (1)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Optics 33, 1601–1618 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 69–78 (1986).

H. Kolner, D. M. Bloom, “Electrooptic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79–94 (1986).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, D. B. Buchholz, “155 Mb/s operation of a FET-SEED free-space switching network,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1479–1481 (1994).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, “High speed 2 × 4 array of differential quantum well modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 477–480 (1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

General sampling scheme. The periodic electronic waveform modifies the absorption of the MQW modulator. An advancing optical-sampling pulse samples a slightly different time interval during each collection. In this example, the full waveform would be scanned in eight sampling pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Components of the optical oscilloscope: the photonic system under investigation, viewport, signal synchronization, and computer control and analysis. GPIB, general-purpose interface bus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Oscilloscope display interface showing an image of the illuminated modulator array, a video window for selecting the regions of interest, and the intensity traces for the designated devices.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Array of scope traces taken from 16 modulators. Vertical pairs of scans show complementary data. The data scans are 1-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero data patterns. The high-frequency scans are 1-GHz square waves.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image of MQW modulator array illuminated by a beam array captured by video camera.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Data pattern of 10111000 at 1 Gb/s sampled with a conventional high-speed photodetector.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Intensity evolution of optical strobe pulse as measured by a high-speed photodetector.

Equations (1)

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P on / P off = SNR * T o ff / T on ,

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