Abstract

Large, high-frame-rate spatial light modulators are key components required for the realization of real-time optical processors. We report a 128 × 128 array of GaAs-based optical modulators that we hybridized to a Si integrated circuit by using In bump bonds to form a spatial light modulator. These optical modulators are composed of a series of quantum wells within an asymmetric Fabry–Perot cavity to control the optical properties. The resulting 128 × 128 element array operates in an intensity-only reflection mode at greater than 100,000 frames per second. This array interfaces to a 486-based personal computer through a standard industry standard architecture bus.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).
  2. J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).
  3. W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).
  4. D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–681 (1983).
  5. T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).
  6. T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).
  7. D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum wells for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 26, 368–377 (1987).
  8. G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).
  9. T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).
  10. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).
  11. D. J. McKnight, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillito, “Development of a spatial light modulator: a randomly addressed liquid-crystal-over-nMOS array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4757–4762 (1989).
  12. A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).
  13. J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).
  14. K. H. Calhoun, N. M. Jokerst, “AlGaAs/GaAs thin-film Fabry–Perot modulator on a glass substrate using alignable epitaxial lift-off” Opt. Lett. 18, 882–885 (1993).
  15. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
  16. W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

1993 (2)

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

K. H. Calhoun, N. M. Jokerst, “AlGaAs/GaAs thin-film Fabry–Perot modulator on a glass substrate using alignable epitaxial lift-off” Opt. Lett. 18, 882–885 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).

1987 (3)

J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum wells for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 26, 368–377 (1987).

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

1985 (2)

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

1983 (2)

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–681 (1983).

1982 (1)

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

1978 (1)

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Albritton, J.

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

Anderson, R. H.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Beck, W. A.

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

Bleha, W. P.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

Brown, H. B.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Burns, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

Burrus, C. A.

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Calhoun, K. H.

Carr, E. C.

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Carr, N.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Casasent, D.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Chemla, D. S.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

Clewitt, D.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

Efron, U.

T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).

English, J. H.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Faska, T. S.

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

Goodwin, M. J.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Gossard, A. C.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Grinberg, J.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Groves-Kirby, C. J.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Harris, J. S.

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Henry, J. E.

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Hornbeck, L. J.

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–681 (1983).

Hsu, T. Y.

T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).

Jokerst, N. M.

Kearly, M. Q.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Lagerwall, S. T.

J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).

Larson, M. C.

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Lipton, L. T.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Little, J. W.

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

Lord, S. M.

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Markevitch, B. V.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Matuszczyk, T.

J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).

Maung, N.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

McCall, S. L.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

McKnight, D. J.

Miller, D. A. B.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum wells for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 26, 368–377 (1987).

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

Mosely, A. J.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Pape, D. R.

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–681 (1983).

Pezeshki, B.

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Psaltis, D.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Reif, P. G.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Robbins, D. J.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Ross, W. E.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Sensipe, M.

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

Sillito, R. M.

Thompson, J.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Trezza, J. A.

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Vass, D. G.

Wahl, J.

J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).

Wiegmann, W.

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

Wiener-Avner, E.

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Wood, A. K.

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

Wu, W-Y.

T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, S. L. McCall, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Multiple quantum well reflection modulator” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1119–1121 (1987).

J. A. Trezza, B. Pezeshki, M. C. Larson, S. M. Lord, J. S. Harris, “High contrast asymmetric Fabry–Perot electro-absorption modulator with zero phase change” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 452–455 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Y. Hsu, W-Y. Wu, U. Efron, “Amplitude and phase modulation in 4-μm thick GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well modulators” Electron. Lett. 24, 603–605 (1988).

A. J. Mosely, M. Q. Kearly, M. J. Goodwin, D. J. Robbins, J. Thompson, A. K. Wood, C. J. Groves-Kirby, N. Carr, N. Maung, D. Clewitt, “8 channel InGaAs/lnP quantum well asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator hybridized with foundry VLSI silicon CMOS drive circuit” Electron. Lett. 28, 1658–1660 (1992).

T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, J. E. Henry, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “High-speed 2 × 2 electrically driven spatial light modulators made with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs)” Electron. Lett. 23, 916–917 (1982).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “131-ps optical modulation semiconductor multiple quantum wells” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 117–118 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burns, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “The quantum well self-electrooptic effect device: optoelectronic bistability and oscillation and self-linearization modulation” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1462–1476 (1985).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. Wahl, T. Matuszczyk, S. T. Lagerwall, “A dynamic picture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal screen in a multiplex device” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 143–150 (1987).

Opt. Eng. (4)

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

D. R. Pape, L. J. Hornbeck, “Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 22, 675–681 (1983).

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum wells for optical information processing” Opt. Eng. 26, 368–377 (1987).

W. P. Bleha, L. T. Lipton, E. Wiener-Avner, J. Grinberg, P. G. Reif, D. Casasent, H. B. Brown, B. V. Markevitch, “Application of the liquid crystal light valve to real-time optical data processing” Opt. Eng. 17, 371–384 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, “Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).

Other (1)

W. A. Beck, T. S. Faska, J. W. Little, J. Albritton, M. Sensipe, “LWIR imaging performance of 256 × 256 miniband transport multiple quantum well infrared focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays III, E. L. Deremak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2225, 130–138 (1994).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Asymmetric Fabry–Perot quantum-well optical chip hybridized with a Si integrated circuit to form a SLM.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Design of the AFPC used in the optical pixel of the SLM.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cavity resonance and Stark shifting of the exciton optical absorption feature used in the optical modulator.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency response of an individual optical pixel measured with an analog rf signal.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

MBE-grown structure used to produce the AFPC.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflection spectra of the wafer used to monitor adjusted cavity thickness to create the required exciton absorption-to-cavity resonance separation.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured circuit response for the unit cell used in the integrated circuit drive chip for the SLM.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hybrid design of the SLM that shows the optical pixel connected to an electrical pixel in the integrated circuit.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Picture of a single frame of data displayed on the 128 × 128 pixel SLM.

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