Abstract

We have constructed an optical parametric oscillator to generate 75-ps near-transform-limited pulses with wavelengths tunable about 1.053 μm for use in pump–probe studies of self-focusing. The singly resonant oscillator uses a Brewster-cut LiB3O5 crystal that is oriented for type-II phase matching and synchronously pumped by the amplified and frequency-tripled pulse trains from a mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. An intracavity Pockels cell is used to switch out single 0.5–MW pulses at rates of 1 to 10 Hz. The design, construction, and performance of the oscillator are discussed. Measured performance is compared with design predictions and with detailed numerical simulations.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. B. Weisman, S. A. Rice, “Tunable infrared ultrashort pulses from a modelocked parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 19, 28–32 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Bjorkholm, “Efficient optical parametric oscillation using doubly and singly resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 53–56 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ebrahimzadeh, G. J. Hall, A. I. Ferguson, “Singly resonant, all-solid-state mode-locked LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 652 nm to 2.65 μm,” Opt. Lett. 17, 652–654 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Fu, G. Mak, H. M. van Driel, “High-power, 62-fs infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a 76-MHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1006–1008 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Ch. Grasser, D. Wang, R. Beigang, R. Wallenstein, “Singly resonant parametric oscillator of KTiOPO4 synchronously pumped by the radiation of a continuous-wave mode-locked Nd:YLF lase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2218–2221 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Robertson, A. I. Ferguson, “Synchronously pumped all-solid-state lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator in a ring configuration,” Opt. Lett. 19, 117–119 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Falk, J. E. Murray, “Single-cavity noncollinear optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 245–247 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. C. Cheung, J. M. Liu, “Efficient generation of ultrashort, wavelength-tunable infrared pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1491–1506 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. G. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, R. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), p. 47.
  30. D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. Kato, “Tunable UV generation to 0.2325 μm in LiB3O5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1173–1175 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  40. K. Zhang, CSK Co., Culver City, Calif. 90230 (personal communication, November1992).
  41. D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian beams produced by axially asymmetric laser cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483–488 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Grasser, D. Wang, R. Beigang, R. Wallenstein, “Singly resonant parametric oscillator of KTiOPO4 synchronously pumped by the radiation of a continuous-wave mode-locked Nd:YLF lase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2218–2221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebrahimzadeh, G. J. Hall, A. I. Ferguson, “Singly resonant, all-solid-state mode-locked LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator tunable from 652 nm to 2.65 μm,” Opt. Lett. 17, 652–654 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fu, G. Mak, H. M. van Driel, “High-power, 62-fs infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a 76-MHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1006–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Cheung, J. M. Liu, “Efficient generation of ultrashort, wavelength-tunable infrared pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1491–1506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “Tunable UV generation to 0.2325 μm in LiB3O5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1173–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. B. Weisman, S. A. Rice, “Tunable infrared ultrashort pulses from a modelocked parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 19, 28–32 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk, J. E. Murray, “Single-cavity noncollinear optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 245–247 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian beams produced by axially asymmetric laser cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483–488 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Efficient optical parametric oscillation using doubly and singly resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 53–56 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bareika, B.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Efficient optical parametric oscillation using doubly and singly resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 53–56 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bromley, L. J.

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Burdulis, S.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S. D.

M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. G.

R. G. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, R. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), p. 47.

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. C.

Danelysus, R.

R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dikchyus, G.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Falk, J.

S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk, J. E. Murray, “Single-cavity noncollinear optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 245–247 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

Fix, A.

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

Giordmaine, J.A.

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grasser, Ch.

Grigonis, R.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guy, A.

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, G. J.

Hanna, D. C.

M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian beams produced by axially asymmetric laser cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483–488 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Tunable UV generation to 0.2325 μm in LiB3O5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1173–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G.

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kubacek, V.

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kushida, T.

T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Laenan, R.

R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Loiacono, G.

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Mak, G.

Masuda, H.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, M. J.

M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. E.

J. Falk, J. E. Murray, “Single-cavity noncollinear optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 245–247 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nolting, J.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ojima, M.

T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G. C.

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rice, S. A.

R. B. Weisman, S. A. Rice, “Tunable infrared ultrashort pulses from a modelocked parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 19, 28–32 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A.

Shank, C.

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sinkevicius, G.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smil’gyavichyus, V.

A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smilgevicius, V.

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Umbrasas, A.

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Velsko, S. P.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wachman, E. S.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Ch. Grasser, D. Wang, R. Beigang, R. Wallenstein, “Singly resonant parametric oscillator of KTiOPO4 synchronously pumped by the radiation of a continuous-wave mode-locked Nd:YLF lase,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2218–2221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Wang, F.

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Webb, M.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weisman, R. B.

R. B. Weisman, S. A. Rice, “Tunable infrared ultrashort pulses from a modelocked parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 19, 28–32 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihara, K.

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, CSK Co., Culver City, Calif. 90230 (personal communication, November1992).

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Efficient optical parametric oscillation using doubly and singly resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 53–56 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, J. Zhang, T. Chen, C. Chen, Y. R. Shen, “Picosecond, narrow-band widely tunable optical parametric oscillator using a temperature-tuned lithium borate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728–1730 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk, J. E. Murray, “Single-cavity noncollinear optical parametric oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 245–247 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (10)

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F. Wang, G. Loiacono, G. Kennedy, “Deuterated L-argnine phosphate: a new efficient nonlinear crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 179–193 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “Tunable UV generation to 0.2325 μm in LiB3O5,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1173–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha, F. Wu, J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Falk, “Instabilities in the doubly resonant parametric oscillator: a theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-7, 230–235 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian beams produced by axially asymmetric laser cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483–488 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. Shank, “Astigmatically compensated cavities for CW dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373–379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J.Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical and thermal properties of barium borate,” J.Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kushida, Y. Tanaka, M. Ojima, “Tunable picosecond pulse generation by optical parametric oscillator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2227–2235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (9)

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 67, 316–320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bromley, A. Guy, D. C. Hanna, “Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in KTP,” Opt. Commun. 70, 350–354 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Burdulis, R. Grigonis, A. Piskarskas, G. Sinkevicius, V. Sirutkaitis, A. Fix, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, “Visible optical parametric oscillation in synchronously pumped beta-barium borate,” Opt. Commun. 74, 398–402 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Laenan, H. Graener, A. Laubereau, “Tunable subpicosecond pulses in the infrared by optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Commun. 77, 226–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Kubacek, Y. Takagi, K. Yoshihara, G. C. Reali, “Lithium triborate picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 91, 93–96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, “The parametric generation of bandwidth-limited picosecond light pulses,” Opt. Commun. 73, 322–324 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Weisman, S. A. Rice, “Tunable infrared ultrashort pulses from a modelocked parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 19, 28–32 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McCarthy, S. D. Butterworth, D. C. Hanna, “High-power widely tunable picosecond pulses from an all-solid-state synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 102, 297–303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Piskarskas, V. Smilgevicius, A. Umbrasas, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, “Parametric oscillation in beta-barium borate synchronously pumped by the third harmonic of a continuously excited mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 77, 335–338 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I.,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J.A. Giordmaine, R. C. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Piskarskas, V. Smil’gyavichyus, A. Umbrasas, “Continuous parametric generation of picosecond light pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 18, 155–156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limit divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Danelysus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Picosecond optical parametric oscillators and their applications in absorption spectroscopy of fast processes,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1626–1632 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. G. Byer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, R. G. Harper, B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, San Francisco, Calif., 1977), p. 47.

K. Zhang, CSK Co., Culver City, Calif. 90230 (personal communication, November1992).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simple model of a pulsed synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO). M denotes mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Values of rp and rs for which the reduction in parametric gain due to Poynting-vector walk-off is 5% (solid curves). The calculations are for critically phase-matched processes a, os + ei op ; b, es + oi op ; c, es,i + oi,s ep ; and d, os + oi ep , es + ei op , where e and o denote waves with and without walk-off, respectively, and dispersion in walk-off angle has been neglected. The dashed curves denote contours of constant W. Focusing schemes tested experimentally are indicated by the circles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry for type-II phase matching of the 0.351-μm pump, 1.053-μm signal, and 0.527-μm idler fields in the yz plane of LBO. The E vectors denote the polarization directions of the three optical fields. The orientation of the crystal axes follows the convention of Ref. 35.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimate of the maximum circulating signal power achievable in the LBO SPOPO given the Gaussian pump train described in the text at increasing levels of peak power, plotted versus the peak parametric gain-length product g 0 l(0). Curves a and b are calculated for round-trip transmissions of 90% and 70%, respectively, and for mode parameters W of 0.2 (——) and 0.3 (–––) and 0.4 (–·–) and 0.5 (⋯··)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scale drawing of the LBO oscillator constructed on a 0.0305 m × 1.22 m Invar breadboard. Dots indicate positions of insertable alignment references. (b) Brewster’s angle geometry of the pump, signal, and idler beams at the LBO crystal. The pump and idler k vectors outside the crystal are oriented at 2° and 3° from the signal k vector, respectively. The E vectors indicate the polarization directions of the three fields.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transverse spatial profile of the signal field measured at M1. The contours indicate relative intensity, with values decreasing radially from 0.9 to 0.1 in increments of 0.2 (in arbitrary units).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Fast-diode waveforms of the 0.351-μm pump train measured at M3 with the cavity blocked to prevent oscillation. (b) Waveforms of the depleted pump train at M3 and the signal train at M1 with the cavity unblocked. The photographs were obtained by addition of the two diode waveforms with the signal delayed relative to the pump by ∼1/2 round-trip for clarity. (c) Same as (b) but showing the sudden decrease in signal at M1 as the circulating pulse is cavity dumped through the polarizer (indicated by the arrow). The large pulse immediately following the switchout is an undepleted pump pulse.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Streak camera recording of a cavity-dumped signal pulse (solid trace) superposed with that of an incident 0.351-μm pump pulse. The FWHM pulse widths are 77 and 70 ps, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Data demonstrating tunability of the signal wavelength over the desired range of 1.053 μm ± 10 nm. The theoretical curve is based on calculated dispersion of LBO at 30 °C. (b) Spectrum of a cavity-dumped pulse measured with a Fabry–Perot interferometer. The FWHM bandwidth is 9.0 GHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Results of numerical simulations showing peak power of the pump and signal pulses (solid and medium-toned circles, respectively) calculated at M2 after each pass through the crystal. The pass number has been adjusted so that pass zero corresponds to the passage of the maximum-amplitude pump pulse. The peak signal power at the output polarizer is also plotted (open circles) for comparison with experiment. (b) and (c) Corresponding plots of energy and signal pulse width.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated temporal profiles of the pump (——), signal (––), and idler (⋯) pulses on the 8th pass following the peak of the pump train, corresponding roughly to the time of switchout in Fig. 7(c).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Figures of Merit for Phase Matching and Nonlinear Coupling of the First, Second, and Third Harmonics of Nd:YLF at 20 °C.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Field, Crystal, and Cavity Parameters Used in the Numerical Simulations

Equations (20)

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E j ( ρ , z , t ) = 1 2 { j ( ρ , z , t ) exp [ i ( k j z ω j t )                    + c . c . } e ^ j , j = s , i , p ,
j ( ρ , z , t ) = 1 n j A j ( z , t )   exp { [ ( x α j z ) 2 + y 2 ] / ω j 2 } .
( z + 1 υ g s t ) A s = γ s 2 A s + i ω s K G s A i * A p    e x p ( i Δ k z ) ,
( z + 1 υ g i t ) A i = γ i 2 A i + i ω i K G i A s * A p    e x p ( i Δ k z ) ,
( z + 1 υ g p t ) A p = γ p 2 A p + i ω p K G p A s * A i    e x p ( i Δ k z ) ,
K = 1 c d eff ( n p n s n t ) 1 / 2 .
1 w ¯ j 2 = 1 w k 2 + 1 w i 2 , j k l ,
g j = 2 w ¯ j 2 w j 2 + w ¯ j 2 ,
η = l 2 w p        × [ ( α s α i ) 2 + r s 2 ( α i α p ) 2 + r i 2 ( α s α p ) 2 r s 2 + r i 2 + r s 2 r i 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
G j = g j cos 2 α j [ π 2 erf ( η ) η ] .
g 0 2 = 4 P p π 0 c ω s ω i K 2 g s g i w p 2 [ π 4 erf ( η ) η ] 2 .
( g 0 l ) 2 2 P p π∈ 0 c 3 ω s ω i W F .
W = 1 r p 2 ( 1 + r s 2 ) ,
F = ( d eff n 3 / 2 α ) 2 ,
P s ( l ) P s ( 0 ) = 1 + ω s P p ( 0 ) ω p P s ( 0 ) { 1 sn 2 [ g 0 ( 0 ) l ξ + K ( ξ ) , ξ ] } ,
ξ = [ 1 + ω p P s ( 0 ) ω s P p ( 0 ) ] 1 / 2 .
d v 1 l 1 υ g s 1 υ g i .
l min = ( f S P p max π r p 2 α 2 I D ) 1 / 2 ,
S in = [ ( 1 R j ) cos   θ j / cos   θ 0 ] 1 / 2 , S out = [ ( 1 R j ) cos   θ 0 / cos   θ j ] 1 / 2 ,
T e ( ω ) 2 = { 1 R e 1 R e   exp [ i δ ( ω ) ] 1 / 2 } 2 δ ( ω ) = 2 n e d c ω .

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