Abstract

The holmium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Ho:YVO4) crystal was shown to be an effective solid-state saturable-absorber Q switch for a flash-lamp-pumped Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser operating at 2.017 μm. A single Q-switched laser pulse of 3.5 mJ in energy and 45 ns in duration was observed with a 1-mm-thick 4% Ho:YVO4 solid-state saturable absorber, which was grown with the high-temperature-solution-growth method.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Bowkett, G. W. Baxter, D. J. Booth, T. Taira, H. Teranishi, T. Kobayashi, “Single-mode 1.34-μm Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with CW Ti:sapphire and diode-laser pumping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 957–959 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. P. Yaney, L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Robrish, “Single-mode electro-optically tuned Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 813–815 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Saito, S. Chaaddha, R. S. F. Chang, N. Djeu, “Efficient 1.94-μm Tm3+ laser in YVO4 host,” Opt. Lett. 17, 189–191 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Andrauskas, C. Kennedy, “Tetravalent chromium solid-state passive Q switch for Nd:YAG laser systems,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers,G. Dubé, L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 393–397.
  10. M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, M. Kokta, “Co2+:YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 339–341 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, “Passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser with a Cr4+:YSO solid-state saturable ab-sorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 173–175 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  21. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  23. Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).
  25. R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

1995 (3)

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, M. Kokta, “Co2+:YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 339–341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, “Passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser with a Cr4+:YSO solid-state saturable ab-sorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 173–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bowkett, G. W. Baxter, D. J. Booth, T. Taira, H. Teranishi, T. Kobayashi, “Single-mode 1.34-μm Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with CW Ti:sapphire and diode-laser pumping,” Opt. Lett. 19, 957–959 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Robrish, “Single-mode electro-optically tuned Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Saito, S. Chaaddha, R. S. F. Chang, N. Djeu, “Efficient 1.94-μm Tm3+ laser in YVO4 host,” Opt. Lett. 17, 189–191 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Yaney, L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alekel, T.

G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).

Andrauskas, D. M.

D. M. Andrauskas, C. Kennedy, “Tetravalent chromium solid-state passive Q switch for Nd:YAG laser systems,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers,G. Dubé, L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 393–397.

Bass, M.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

Birnbaum, M.

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, “Passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser with a Cr4+:YSO solid-state saturable ab-sorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 173–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, M. Kokta, “Co2+:YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 339–341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Booth, D. J.

Bowkett, G. C.

Camargo, M. B.

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, M. Kokta, “Co2+:YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 339–341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chaaddha, S.

Chang, D. B.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

Chang, R. S. F.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demchuk, M. I.

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeShazer, L. G.

P. P. Yaney, L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

DeShezer, L. G.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Djeu, N.

Erler, J. W.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fay, W. R.

G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).

Fields, R. A.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. F.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

Katsumata, T.

Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, C.

D. M. Andrauskas, C. Kennedy, “Tetravalent chromium solid-state passive Q switch for Nd:YAG laser systems,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers,G. Dubé, L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 393–397.

Kobayashi, T.

Kokta, M.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. K.

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, “Passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser with a Cr4+:YSO solid-state saturable ab-sorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 173–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, M. G.

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarlane, R. A.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

Mikhailov, V. P.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minkov, B. I.

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizell, G.

G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).

Montgomery, S. T.

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Munin, E.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nobe, Y.

Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S. A.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

Prokohsin, P. V.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prokoshin, P. V.

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, M.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

Robrish, P.

P. Robrish, “Single-mode electro-optically tuned Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rytz, D.

G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).

Saito, H.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Saito, S. Chaaddha, R. S. F. Chang, N. Djeu, “Efficient 1.94-μm Tm3+ laser in YVO4 host,” Opt. Lett. 17, 189–191 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandulenko, V. A.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spariosu, K.

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R. D.

M. B. Camargo, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, M. Kokta, “Co2+:YSGG saturable absorber Q switch for infrared erbium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 339–341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy2+:CaF2 saturable-absorber Q switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Takashima, H.

Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teranishi, H.

Tucker, A. W.

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Villaverde, A. B.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Yaney, P. P.

P. P. Yaney, L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. X.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N. I.

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, S. T. Montgomery, M. Birnbaum, K. Spariosu, “U4+:SrF2 efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the 1.54 μm erbium:glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 948–950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, “Passive Q-switching of the alexandrite laser with a Cr4+:YSO solid-state saturable ab-sorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 173–175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Spariosu, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Er:Ca5(PO4)3F saturable-absorber Q switch for the Er:glass laser at 1.53 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2763–2765 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, “Broadband, intensity dependent absorption in tetravalent chromium-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1739–1741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, J. W. Erler, “Stimulated emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, L. G. DeShezer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μ,,”J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

P. P. Yaney, L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J.Appl. Phys (1)

K. Ohta, H. Saito, M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J.Appl. Phys. 73, 3149–3152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, B. I. Minkov, “Chromium-doped forsterite as a solid-state saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 929–930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Robrish, “Single-mode electro-optically tuned Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nobe, H. Takashima, T. Katsumata, “Decoloration of yttrium orthovanadate laser host crystals by annealing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1216–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokohsin, K. V. Yumashev, V. A. Sandulenko, “Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Opt. Mater. 2, 267–272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

G. Mizell, W. R. Fay, T. Alekel, D. Rytz, “Recent developments in the growth, processing, and testing of rare earth doped YVO4 single crystals,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2115, 52–60 (1994).

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.L. Shund, H. P. Jenssen, eds., Vol. 5 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 179–186.

D. M. Andrauskas, C. Kennedy, “Tetravalent chromium solid-state passive Q switch for Nd:YAG laser systems,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers,G. Dubé, L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 393–397.

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature unpolarized absorption spectrum of the 1-mm-thick 4% Ho:YVO4 saturable absorber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature polarized absorption spectra of the 1-mm-thick 4% Ho:YVO4 saturable absorber near 2 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature fluorescence profile of the 4% Ho:YVO4 crystal (5 I 75 I 8 transition). The emission lifetime is 3.8 ms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement for the Tm,Cr:YAG passive Q switching with a Ho:YVO4 saturable absorber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profile of the Q-switched Tm,Cr:YAG laser pulse. The broken curve is the result from the experiment, and the solid curve is the result predicted by theory.

Equations (1)

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2 α a L a 2 α g L g σ a σ g A g A a > γ ,

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