Abstract

We describe a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)-based probe for enhanced signal collection in the spectroscopy of biological tissues. Theoretical considerations governing signal enhancement compared with conventional collection methods are given. A ray-tracing program was used to analyze the throughput of CPC's with shape deviations and surface imperfections. A modified CPC shape with 99% throughput was discovered. A 4.4-mm-long CPC was manufactured and incorporated into an optical fiber-based near-infrared Raman spectrometer system. For human tissue samples, light collection was enhanced by a factor of 7 compared with collection with 0.29-NA optical fibers.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A (to be published).
  2. R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.
  3. R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “In situ histochemistry of human artery using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 3473–3477 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 4, p. 55.
  8. R. Winston, “Nonimaging optics,” Solar Today 6, 26–29 (1992).
  9. Ref. 7, Chap. 11, p. 214.
  10. R. J. Koshel, I. A. Walmsley, “Modeling of the gain distribution for diode pumping of a solid-state laser rod with nonimaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1517–1527 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. A. Snail, “Reflectometer design using nonimaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5326–5332 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. T. Buontempo, S. A. Rice, “Spectroscopy with nonimaging optics: application to the infrared spectroscopy of langmuir monolayers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 725–731 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Brennan, K. Tanaka, I. Itzkan, A. J. Berger, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Nonimaging spectral probe,” U.S. patent pending.
  14. Ref. 7, Chap. 4, pp. 60–62.
  15. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. 9, p. 464.
  16. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), Chap. 12, pp. 109–132.
  17. A. J. Berger, Y. Wang, D. Sameth, I. Itzkan, K. Kneipp, M. S. Feld, “Aqueous dissolved gas measurements using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1164–1169 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (4)

1990 (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

Baraga, J. J.

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “In situ histochemistry of human artery using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 3473–3477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

Blackman, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. 9, p. 464.

Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, J. F.

Brennan, J. P.

J. P. Brennan, K. Tanaka, I. Itzkan, A. J. Berger, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Nonimaging spectral probe,” U.S. patent pending.

Buontempo, J. T.

Carey, D. M.

Cooney, T. F.

Cothren, R. M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, B.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

Dasari, R. R.

Doxtader, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

A. J. Berger, Y. Wang, D. Sameth, I. Itzkan, K. Kneipp, M. S. Feld, “Aqueous dissolved gas measurements using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1164–1169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “In situ histochemistry of human artery using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 3473–3477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A (to be published).

J. P. Brennan, K. Tanaka, I. Itzkan, A. J. Berger, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Nonimaging spectral probe,” U.S. patent pending.

Fitzmau-rice, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, G. B.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

Ivanc, T. B.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, K.

Koshel, R. J.

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A (to be published).

Petras, R. E.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, A.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

Rava, R. P.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “In situ histochemistry of human artery using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 3473–3477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, S. A.

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sameth, D.

Schoen, C. L.

Sharma, S. K.

Sivak, M. V.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snail, K. A.

Tanaka, K.

J. P. Brennan, K. Tanaka, I. Itzkan, A. J. Berger, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Nonimaging spectral probe,” U.S. patent pending.

Tang, G. C.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, T. D.

Wang, Y.

A. J. Berger, Y. Wang, D. Sameth, I. Itzkan, K. Kneipp, M. S. Feld, “Aqueous dissolved gas measurements using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1164–1169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A (to be published).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 4, p. 55.

Winston, R.

R. Winston, “Nonimaging optics,” Solar Today 6, 26–29 (1992).

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 4, p. 55.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. 9, p. 464.

Yoo, K. M.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

Zonios, G. I.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmau-rice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “In situ histochemistry of human artery using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 3473–3477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solar Today (1)

R. Winston, “Nonimaging optics,” Solar Today 6, 26–29 (1992).

Other (8)

Ref. 7, Chap. 11, p. 214.

J. P. Brennan, K. Tanaka, I. Itzkan, A. J. Berger, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Nonimaging spectral probe,” U.S. patent pending.

Ref. 7, Chap. 4, pp. 60–62.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), Chap. 9, p. 464.

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), Chap. 12, pp. 109–132.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 4, p. 55.

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A (to be published).

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, B. Das, K. M. Yoo, “Optical spectroscopy may offer new diagnostic approaches for the medical profession,” in Laser Nonsurgical Medicine, L. Goldman, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991), pp. 55–123.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CPC, with rays emanating from a sample surface shown exiting the output aperture. The coordinates used in Eq. (2) are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between light collection, using a CPC, and a collection fiber bundle with a NA = 0.29, collecting from a Lambertian radiator: (a) CPC collection; (b) conventional optical fiber bundle collection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Throughput, η, of a θ m = 16.9° CPC as a function of the variation from the design shape. The parameter varied is the exit diameter, normalized to the exit diameter of the CPC defined by Eq. (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Throughput, η, of a θ m = 16.9° CPC as a function of the surface roughness with and without absorption for various metals, at a wavelength of 1 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arrangement of the integrated CPC–Raman collection system: (a) excitation fiber, (b) filters, (c) CPC, (d) field lenses placed to prevent vignetting of signal; (e) collection fiber bundle; (f) spectrometer and CCD detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman spectra obtained from a BaSO4 sample with and without a CPC.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectra obtained (a) from a human breast tissue sample with and without a CPC; (b) from human atherosclerotic plaque with and without a CPC.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Throughput Calculated for a θm = 16.9° CPC with Various Metal Surfaces with 100% Specular Reflectance

Equations (3)

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ρ = φ = 0 2 π θ = 0 π / 2 L ( θ , φ ) sin θ d θ d φ φ = 0 2 π θ = 0 θ m L ( θ , φ ) sin θ d θ d φ ,
( r c + z s ) 2 + 2 a ( 1 + s ) 2 r 2 ac ( 2 + s ) z a 2 ( 1 + s ) ( 3 + s ) = 0 ,
R s 1 ( 2 π x λ ) 2 ,

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