Abstract

We have developed an instrument for determination of the angular light scattering of beads and biological cells. The instrument uses radiation pressure for levitation of particles inside a cuvette. The setup consists of two 780-nm diode lasers in a vertical double-beam trapping configuration. In the horizontal direction a weakly focused 633-nm probe beam is used to illuminate the trapped particle. One can detect scattered light over the range of from −150 to 150 deg with an angular resolution of 0.9 deg using an avalanche photodiode. With this setup light scattering from polystyrene beads was measured, and the obtained scattering patterns were compared with theoretical scattering patterns from Lorenz–Mie theory. The results show that the setup is stable, gives reproducible patterns, and qualitatively agrees with the calculations. Trapping of biological cells is more difficult than trapping of beads, because smaller forces result from smaller refractive indices. We present an angular scattering pattern measured from a human lymphocyte measured from 20 to 60 deg.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. O. Park, S. S. Lee, “Forward far-field pattern of a laser beam scattered by a water-suspended homogeneous sphere trapped by a focused laser beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 417–422 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. K. Ray, A. Souyri, J. Davis, T. M. Allen, “Precision of light scattering techniques for measuring optical parameters of microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3974–3983 (1991).
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  10. T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.
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    [CrossRef]
  18. P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  20. K. D. Lofftus, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, F. Livolant, M. Maestre, “Light scattering by Prorecentrum micans: a new method and results,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2924–2931 (1992).
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  23. L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
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  25. A. G. Hoekstra, R. M. P. Doornbos, K. E. I. Deurloo, H. J. Noordmans, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, “Another face of Lorenz–Mie scattering: monodisperse distributions of spheres produce Lissajous-like patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 494–500 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. C. Bakker Schut, E. F. Schipper, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Optical-trapping micromanipulation using 780-nm diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 447–449 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Guilloteau, G. Grehan, G. Gouesbet, “Optical levitation experiments to assess the validity of the generalized Lorenz- Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2942–2951 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. V. Lorenz, “Upon the light reflected and refracted by a transparent sphere,” Vidensk. Selsk. Shrifter 6, 1–62 (1890).
  31. G. Mie, “Considerations on the optics of turbid media, especially colloidal metal sols,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377–442 (1908).
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    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Gulari, “Latex particles size distribution from multiwavelength turbidity spectra,” Part. Charact. 4, 96–100 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. N. F. Owens, D. Gingell, “Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress,” J. Cell Sci. 87, 667–675 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  36. K. Visser, G. J. Bakenhoff, “Theoretical study of optically induced force on spherical particles in a single beam trap. II: Mie scatterers,” Optik 90, 57–60 (1992).
  37. R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1976), Chap. E, p. 223.

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

T. C. Bakker Schut, E. F. Schipper, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Optical-trapping micromanipulation using 780-nm diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

1991 (3)

A. K. Ray, A. Souyri, J. Davis, T. M. Allen, “Precision of light scattering techniques for measuring optical parameters of microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3974–3983 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Schweiger, “Raman scattering on microparticles: size dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1770–1778 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

E. Gulari, “Latex particles size distribution from multiwavelength turbidity spectra,” Part. Charact. 4, 96–100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Owens, D. Gingell, “Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress,” J. Cell Sci. 87, 667–675 (1987).
[PubMed]

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Park, S. S. Lee, “Forward far-field pattern of a laser beam scattered by a water-suspended homogeneous sphere trapped by a focused laser beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 417–422 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

P. M. A. Sloot, C. G. Figdor, “Elastic light scattering from nucleated blood cells: rapid numerical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 253559–3565 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, “Structural resonances observed in the Raman spectra of optically levitated liquid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1515–1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
[PubMed]

B. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The application of perpendicular and forward light scattering to assess nuclear and cellular morphology,” Cytometry 5, 513–522 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Considerations on the optics of turbid media, especially colloidal metal sols,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377–442 (1908).

1890 (1)

L. V. Lorenz, “Upon the light reflected and refracted by a transparent sphere,” Vidensk. Selsk. Shrifter 6, 1–62 (1890).

Allen, T. M.

Ashkin, A.

Bakenhoff, G. J.

K. Visser, G. J. Bakenhoff, “Theoretical study of optically induced force on spherical particles in a single beam trap. II: Mie scatterers,” Optik 90, 57–60 (1992).

Bakker Schut, T. C.

T. C. Bakker Schut, E. F. Schipper, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Optical-trapping micromanipulation using 780-nm diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bartholdi, M.

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Benson, B. C.

B. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The application of perpendicular and forward light scattering to assess nuclear and cellular morphology,” Cytometry 5, 513–522 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 13, p. 414.

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, D. S.

B. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The application of perpendicular and forward light scattering to assess nuclear and cellular morphology,” Cytometry 5, 513–522 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

de Grooth, B. G.

R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Hoekstra, R. M. P. Doornbos, K. E. I. Deurloo, H. J. Noordmans, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, “Another face of Lorenz–Mie scattering: monodisperse distributions of spheres produce Lissajous-like patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 494–500 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Bakker Schut, E. F. Schipper, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Optical-trapping micromanipulation using 780-nm diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deurloo, K. E. I.

A. G. Hoekstra, R. M. P. Doornbos, K. E. I. Deurloo, H. J. Noordmans, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, “Another face of Lorenz–Mie scattering: monodisperse distributions of spheres produce Lissajous-like patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 494–500 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Hoekstra, R. M. P. Doornbos, K. E. I. Deurloo, H. J. Noordmans, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, “Another face of Lorenz–Mie scattering: monodisperse distributions of spheres produce Lissajous-like patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 494–500 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Figdor, C. G.

Finney, D. A.

L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
[PubMed]

Florians, A.

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gingell, D.

N. F. Owens, D. Gingell, “Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress,” J. Cell Sci. 87, 667–675 (1987).
[PubMed]

Gouesbet, G.

Grehan, G.

Greve, J.

R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Bakker Schut, E. F. Schipper, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Optical-trapping micromanipulation using 780-nm diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilloteau, F.

Gulari, E.

E. Gulari, “Latex particles size distribution from multiwavelength turbidity spectra,” Part. Charact. 4, 96–100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hearst, J. E.

Hesselink, G.

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hiebert, R. D.

Hoekstra, A. G.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 13, p. 414.

Hull, P. G.

Hunt, A. J.

Johnston, R. G.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Kennedy, A. L.

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerker, M.

Kiefer, W.

Lee, S. S.

Livolant, F.

Lofftus, K. D.

Lorenz, L. V.

L. V. Lorenz, “Upon the light reflected and refracted by a transparent sphere,” Vidensk. Selsk. Shrifter 6, 1–62 (1890).

Maestre, M.

Maestre, M. F.

Maheu, B.

McClain, W. M.

McDougal, D. C.

B. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The application of perpendicular and forward light scattering to assess nuclear and cellular morphology,” Cytometry 5, 513–522 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, P. L.

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Considerations on the optics of turbid media, especially colloidal metal sols,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377–442 (1908).

Misconi, N. Y.

Murphy, R. F.

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolten, G. M. J.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noordmans, H. J.

Oades, Z. G.

L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
[PubMed]

Oliver, J. P.

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Owens, N. F.

N. F. Owens, D. Gingell, “Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress,” J. Cell Sci. 87, 667–675 (1987).
[PubMed]

Park, S. O.

Puppels, G. J.

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

Ratcliff, K. F.

Ray, A. K.

Rusk, E. T.

Salzman, G. C.

M. Bartholdi, G. C. Salzman, R. D. Hiebert, M. Kerker, “Differential light scattering photometer for rapid analysis of single particles in flow,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1573–1581 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Schipper, E. F.

Schweiger, G.

Shapiro, D. B.

Singham, S. B.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

Sklar, L. A.

L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
[PubMed]

Sloot, P. M. A.

Souyri, A.

Taylor, D. L.

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ten Napel, C. H. H.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terstappen, L. W. M. M.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thurn, R.

Van Berkel, W.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), Chap. 1, p. 3.

van der Liet, H.

Van Der Werf, K. O.

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Kouterik, F. A.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visscher, K.

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, K.

K. Visser, G. J. Bakenhoff, “Theoretical study of optically induced force on spherical particles in a single beam trap. II: Mie scatterers,” Optik 90, 57–60 (1992).

Waggoner, A. S.

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. X.

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

G. Mie, “Considerations on the optics of turbid media, especially colloidal metal sols,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377–442 (1908).

Appl. Opt. (12)

A. G. Hoekstra, R. M. P. Doornbos, K. E. I. Deurloo, H. J. Noordmans, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, “Another face of Lorenz–Mie scattering: monodisperse distributions of spheres produce Lissajous-like patterns,” Appl. Opt. 33, 494–500 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Guilloteau, G. Grehan, G. Gouesbet, “Optical levitation experiments to assess the validity of the generalized Lorenz- Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2942–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartholdi, G. C. Salzman, R. D. Hiebert, M. Kerker, “Differential light scattering photometer for rapid analysis of single particles in flow,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1573–1581 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of light scattering from nonspherical particles using optical levitation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 660–668 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Misconi, J. P. Oliver, K. F. Ratcliff, E. T. Rusk, W. X. Wang, “Light scattering by laser levitated particles,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2276–2281 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Guilloteau, G. Grehan, G. Gouesbet, “Optical levitation experiments to assess the validity of the generalized Lorenz– Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2942–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ray, A. Souyri, J. Davis, T. M. Allen, “Precision of light scattering techniques for measuring optical parameters of microspheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3974–3983 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, “Structural resonances observed in the Raman spectra of optically levitated liquid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1515–1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. A. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, H. van der Liet, C. G. Figdor, “Scattering matrix elements of biological particles measured in a flow through system: theory and practice,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1752–1762 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. A. Sloot, C. G. Figdor, “Elastic light scattering from nucleated blood cells: rapid numerical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 253559–3565 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Lofftus, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, F. Livolant, M. Maestre, “Light scattering by Prorecentrum micans: a new method and results,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2924–2931 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shapiro, M. F. Maestre, W. M. McClain, P. G. Hull, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, J. E. Hearst, A. J. Hunt, “Determination of the average orientation of DNA in the octopus sperm Eledone cirrhossa through polarized light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5733–5744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry (8)

B. G. de Grooth, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, G. J. Puppels, J. Greve, “Light scattering polarization measurements as a new parameter in flow cytometry,” Cytometry 8, 539–544 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, K. Visscher, F. A. Van Kouterik, J. Greve, “Four-parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements,” Cytometry 9, 39–43 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, W. Van Berkel, C. H. H. Ten Napel, J. Greve, “Application of orthogonal light scattering for routine screening of lymphocyte samples,” Cytometry 9, 220–225 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Bakker Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. de Grooth, J. Greve, “Experimental and theoretical investigations on the validity of the geometrical optics model for calculating the stability of optical traps,” Cytometry 12, 479–485 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The application of perpendicular and forward light scattering to assess nuclear and cellular morphology,” Cytometry 5, 513–522 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. L. McNeil, A. L. Kennedy, A. S. Waggoner, D. L. Taylor, R. F. Murphy, “Light scattering changes during chemotactic stimulation of human neutrophils,” Cytometry 6, 7–12 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, A. G. Hoekstra, K. E. I. Deurloo, B. G. de Grooth, P. M. A. Sloot, J. Greve, “Lissajous-like patterns in scatter plots of calibration beads,” Cytometry 16, 236–242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. M. M. Terstappen, B. G. de Grooth, G. M. J. Nolten, C. H. H. Ten Napel, W. Van Berkel, J. Greve, “Physical discrimination between human T-lymphocyte subpopulations by means of light scattering, revealing two populations of T8-positive cells,” Cytometry 7, 178–183 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

N. F. Owens, D. Gingell, “Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress,” J. Cell Sci. 87, 667–675 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Immunol. (1)

L. A. Sklar, Z. G. Oades, D. A. Finney, “Neutrophil degranulation detected by right angle light scattering,” J. Immunol. 133, 1483–1487 (1984).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

K. Visser, G. J. Bakenhoff, “Theoretical study of optically induced force on spherical particles in a single beam trap. II: Mie scatterers,” Optik 90, 57–60 (1992).

Part. Charact. (1)

E. Gulari, “Latex particles size distribution from multiwavelength turbidity spectra,” Part. Charact. 4, 96–100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. C. Bakker Schut, A. Florians, K. O. Van Der Werf, B. G. de Grooth, “Flow cytometry signal processing and data acquisition with a personal computer using an RTI-800 multifunction A/D I/O board,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3116–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vidensk. Selsk. Shrifter (1)

L. V. Lorenz, “Upon the light reflected and refracted by a transparent sphere,” Vidensk. Selsk. Shrifter 6, 1–62 (1890).

Other (4)

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1976), Chap. E, p. 223.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 13, p. 414.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), Chap. 1, p. 3.

G. C. Salzman, S. B. Singham, R. G. Johnston, C. F. Bohren, “Light scattering and cytometry,” in Flow Cytometry and Sorting, M. R. Melamed, T. Lindmo, M. L. Mendelsohn, eds. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1990), pp. 81–107.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of optical trapping and the microscope configuration: DL, diode laser; AL, aspherical diode-laser collimating lens; DM, dichroic mirror; O1…3, microscope objectives; Cuv, glass cuvette; L, lamp; CL, collimating lens; L3. .6, spherical lenses; F, short-pass filter; CAM1, 2, video cameras.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup of the scattering detection configuration: L, lamp; CL, collimating lens; Cuv, glass cuvette; O3, microscope objective; L1…4, spherical lenses; CAM2, video camera; HeNe, helium–neon gas laser; CH, chopper; D, diaphragm; F, short-pass filter; APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured scattering curve of a 7.04 ± 0.05μm bead (—·—, right axis) compared with a calculated curve (left axis). The calculated curve was obtained from the LMT (using a diameter of 7.04 μm a refractive-index bead of 1.5774, and the refractive index of water of 1.3318) with integration over the detection cone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reproducibility test of the setup by repeated measurement of the same bead. The first (—·—) and second (——) measurements (after 30 min) yield almost the same curve. The inset shows even more clearly the close resemblance of the measured curves. The background measurement is indicated by —◊—.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured scattering curve of an optically trapped human lymphocyte in phosphate-buffered saline.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lorenz–Mie theoretical scattering curves for three slightly different beads: Curve A, sphere with a diameter of 7.04 μm and a refractive index of 1.5874 in water (n = 1.3318); curve B, slightly (0.3%) smaller sphere of 7.02 μm; the values were multiplied by 100 to separate the curves; curve C, sphere with a slightly (0.6%) larger refractive index, n = 1.5974; the values were multiplied by 10,000 to separate the curves. Note the large differences in the details of the curves.

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