Abstract

Sputter-deposited aluminum (Al) film surface morphologies were studied with a new nondestructive method that incorporates a high-resolution phase-measuring laser interferometric microscope. Good correlation is obtained between rms roughness and reflectivity for various conditions of temperature and argon gas pressure. It should be noted that the rms roughness is much more sensitive than reflectivity when reflectivity exceeds 90%. A drastic change is observed in the temperature dependence of the rms roughness and the skewness at 200 °C. As a result there are changes in Al grain sizes and surface morphologies based on concomitant scanning electron microscope observations. We found that the rms roughness value depends on the resolution of the objective especially when the Al grain sizes are comparable to the resolution.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. B. Huntington, A. R. Grone, “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, 76–87 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Yue, W. P. Funsten, R. V. Taylor, “Stress induced voids in aluminum interconnects during IC processing,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 126.
  3. T. Turner, K. Wendel, “The influence of stress on aluminum conductor life,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 142.
  4. N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.
  5. W. B. Pennebaker, “Hillock growth and stress in relief sputtered Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 394–400 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. K. Lahiri, “Stress relief and hillock formation in thin lead films,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3172–3176 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Gardner, P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Scattering theories and surface statistics,” in Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 38–56.
  10. H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. S. Iyer, C. Y. Wong, “Grain growth study in aluminum films and electromigration implications,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4594–4598 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Biegen, R. A. Smithe, “High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 35–44 (1989).
  13. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Cho, C. V. Thompson, “Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures in narrow interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2577–2579 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. W. Mullins, “Theory of thermal grooving,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333–339 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. S. Nowicki, “Influence of residual gases on the properties of dc magnetron-sputtered aluminum-silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 384–387 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. S. Gardner, P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. S. Iyer, C. Y. Wong, “Grain growth study in aluminum films and electromigration implications,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4594–4598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. S. Nowicki, “Influence of residual gases on the properties of dc magnetron-sputtered aluminum-silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 384–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

S. K. Lahiri, “Stress relief and hillock formation in thin lead films,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3172–3176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. B. Pennebaker, “Hillock growth and stress in relief sputtered Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 394–400 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1961 (3)

H. B. Huntington, A. R. Grone, “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, 76–87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Cho, C. V. Thompson, “Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures in narrow interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2577–2579 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

W. W. Mullins, “Theory of thermal grooving,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333–339 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Scattering theories and surface statistics,” in Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 38–56.

Biegen, J. F.

J. F. Biegen, R. A. Smithe, “High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 35–44 (1989).

Cho, J.

J. Cho, C. V. Thompson, “Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures in narrow interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2577–2579 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Flinn, P. A.

D. S. Gardner, P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Funsten, W. P.

J. T. Yue, W. P. Funsten, R. V. Taylor, “Stress induced voids in aluminum interconnects during IC processing,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 126.

Gardner, D. S.

D. S. Gardner, P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, R. M.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Grone, A. R.

H. B. Huntington, A. R. Grone, “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, 76–87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Grovenor, C. R. M.

H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hentzell, H. T.

H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herman, D. S.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hinode, K.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Horiuchi, M.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Huntington, H. B.

H. B. Huntington, A. R. Grone, “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, 76–87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S. S.

S. S. Iyer, C. Y. Wong, “Grain growth study in aluminum films and electromigration implications,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4594–4598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lahiri, S. K.

S. K. Lahiri, “Stress relief and hillock formation in thin lead films,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3172–3176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Scattering theories and surface statistics,” in Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 38–56.

Mukai, K.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Mullins, W. W.

W. W. Mullins, “Theory of thermal grooving,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333–339 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, K.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Nishida, T.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Nowicki, R. S.

R. S. Nowicki, “Influence of residual gases on the properties of dc magnetron-sputtered aluminum-silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 384–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Owada, N.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

Pennebaker, W. B.

W. B. Pennebaker, “Hillock growth and stress in relief sputtered Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 394–400 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

Schuster, M. A.

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smithe, R. A.

J. F. Biegen, R. A. Smithe, “High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 35–44 (1989).

Taylor, R. V.

J. T. Yue, W. P. Funsten, R. V. Taylor, “Stress induced voids in aluminum interconnects during IC processing,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 126.

Thompson, C. V.

J. Cho, C. V. Thompson, “Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures in narrow interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2577–2579 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Turner, T.

T. Turner, K. Wendel, “The influence of stress on aluminum conductor life,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 142.

Wendel, K.

T. Turner, K. Wendel, “The influence of stress on aluminum conductor life,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 142.

Wong, C. Y.

S. S. Iyer, C. Y. Wong, “Grain growth study in aluminum films and electromigration implications,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4594–4598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yue, J. T.

J. T. Yue, W. P. Funsten, R. V. Taylor, “Stress induced voids in aluminum interconnects during IC processing,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 126.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Cho, C. V. Thompson, “Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures in narrow interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2577–2579 (1961).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

D. S. Gardner, P. A. Flinn, “Mechanical stress as a function of temperature in aluminum films,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 35, 2160–2169 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

W. B. Pennebaker, “Hillock growth and stress in relief sputtered Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 394–400 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lahiri, “Stress relief and hillock formation in thin lead films,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3172–3176 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Mullins, “Theory of thermal grooving,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333–339 (1957).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Iyer, C. Y. Wong, “Grain growth study in aluminum films and electromigration implications,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4594–4598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

H. B. Huntington, A. R. Grone, “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, 76–87 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. S. Herman, M. A. Schuster, R. M. Gerber, “Hillock growth on vacuum deposited aluminum films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 515–519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Nowicki, “Influence of residual gases on the properties of dc magnetron-sputtered aluminum-silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 384–387 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. T. Hentzell, C. R. M. Grovenor, D. A. Smith, “Grain structure variation with temperature for evaporated metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 218–219 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. F. Biegen, R. A. Smithe, “High resolution phase measuring laser interferometric microscope for engineering surface metrology,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 35–44 (1989).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Scattering theories and surface statistics,” in Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 38–56.

J. T. Yue, W. P. Funsten, R. V. Taylor, “Stress induced voids in aluminum interconnects during IC processing,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 126.

T. Turner, K. Wendel, “The influence of stress on aluminum conductor life,” in Proceedings of the 1985 International Reliability Physics Symposium (Electron Device and Reliability Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 142.

N. Owada, K. Hinode, M. Horiuchi, T. Nishida, K. Nakata, K. Mukai, “Stress induced slit-like void formation in a fine-pattern Al-Si interconnect during aging test,” in Proceedings of the 1985 VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (V-MIC), IEEE Catalog 85CH2197-2 (IEEE, New York, 1985), p. 173.

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