Abstract

Optical pumping of polymer sheets containing laser dyes and TiO2 nanoparticle scatterers results in emissions that exhibit laser behavior with linewidths as low as 4 nm. The input–output characteristics, effects of index matching on the emission, damage thresholds, wavelength stability, and possible applications of these new materials are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. W. Hansch, “Application of dye lasers,”in Dye Lasers, F. P. Schafer, ed., Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 194–258.
  2. D. A. Gromov, K. M. Dyumaev, A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, “Efficient plastic-host dye-lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1028–1030 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in scattering gain media,”in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 239.
  6. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, D. P. Pacheco, “Laser-like emission from strongly-scattering films and gels,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 51.
  7. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Spatio-temporal studies in strongly-scattering gain media,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 90.
  8. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Theory of photonic paint,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Postdead-line paper QPD15.
  9. S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Gouedard, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, F. Auzel, A. Migus, “Generation of spatially incoherent short pulses in laser-pumped neodymium stoichiometric crystals and powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2358–2363 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3,839,639 (1October1974).
  14. N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light the way for new technologies,” Photonics Spectra, pp. 119–124 (July1994).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light the way for new technologies,” Photonics Spectra, pp. 119–124 (July1994).

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Gouedard, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, F. Auzel, A. Migus, “Generation of spatially incoherent short pulses in laser-pumped neodymium stoichiometric crystals and powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2358–2363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Allik, T. H.

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in scattering gain media,”in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 239.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, D. P. Pacheco, “Laser-like emission from strongly-scattering films and gels,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 51.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Spatio-temporal studies in strongly-scattering gain media,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 90.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Theory of photonic paint,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Postdead-line paper QPD15.

Belan, V. R.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, C. M.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrova, O. V.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dyumaev, K. M.

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Gromov, D. A.

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch, “Application of dye lasers,”in Dye Lasers, F. P. Schafer, ed., Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 194–258.

Hermes, A. E.

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. S.

R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3,839,639 (1October1974).

Husson, D.

Hutchinson, J. A.

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lavrov, A. V.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light the way for new technologies,” Photonics Spectra, pp. 119–124 (July1994).

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in scattering gain media,”in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 239.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Theory of photonic paint,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Postdead-line paper QPD15.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Spatio-temporal studies in strongly-scattering gain media,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 90.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, D. P. Pacheco, “Laser-like emission from strongly-scattering films and gels,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 51.

Manenkov, A. A.

Markushev, V. M.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maslyukov, A. P.

Matyushin, G. A.

Migus, A.

Nechitailo, V. S.

Pacheco, D. P.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, D. P. Pacheco, “Laser-like emission from strongly-scattering films and gels,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 51.

Prokhorov, A. M.

Qian, S.-X.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauteret, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snow, J. B.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ter-Gabrielyan, N. E.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolin, V. F.

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. E. Hermes, T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, J. A. Hutchinson, “High efficiency pyromethene doped solid-state dye-lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 877–879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (London) (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media”Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Spectra (1)

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light the way for new technologies,” Photonics Spectra, pp. 119–124 (July1994).

Science (1)

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. E. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, C. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by LiNdPO3 and NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

T. W. Hansch, “Application of dye lasers,”in Dye Lasers, F. P. Schafer, ed., Vol. 1 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 194–258.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in scattering gain media,”in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 239.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, D. P. Pacheco, “Laser-like emission from strongly-scattering films and gels,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 51.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Spatio-temporal studies in strongly-scattering gain media,” in Program of the 1994 OSA Annual Meeting and 10th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 90.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Theory of photonic paint,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Postdead-line paper QPD15.

R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3,839,639 (1October1974).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra from polymer sheets containing Rhodamine 640 perchlorate with and without scatterers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak emission from a polymer sheet containing Rhodamine 640 perchlorate with and without TiO2 scatterers as a function of the input pump fluence. The peak emission from the sample with scatterers has been scaled down by a factor of 100.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linewidth of the emission from a polymer sheet containing Rhodamine 640 perchlorate with and without TiO2 scatterers as a function of the input pump fluence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Narrowing of the emission spectra from a solid scattering gain medium under index-matching conditions at the pump face. The medium is excited with a Q-switched, mode-locked, and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm focused to a 2.38 × 10−3-cm2 spot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak intensity and linewidth of emission from a polymer sheet containing Rhodamine 640 perchlorate and TiO2 scatterers as a function of the number of laser pulse shots at a fluence of 210 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength of the peak emission from a polymer sheet containing Rhodamine 640 perchlorate and TiO2 scatterers as a function of the number of laser pulse shots at a fluence of 50 mJ/cm2.

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