Abstract

A novel method for performing color image recognition by the use of the coherent joint-transform correlator is introduced. The input plane of the proposed method is a spatial rearrangement of the separation into color channels of both the color input scene and the color target. This input plane is gray scaled and monochromatic, thus it can be displayed by the use of amplitude spatial light modulators to achieve real-time operation. The system provides a single output-plane result of the optical coherent addition of the separate channels’ correlation outputs. At the output plane no electronic postprocessing is needed, and the detection decision is achieved simply by the application of threshold detection. Experimental results and computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the abilities of this system.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1250 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. Rau, “Detection of differences in real distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1490–1494 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).
  6. B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martinez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Mendlovic, M. Deutsch, C. Ferreira, J. García, “Single-channel polychromatic pattern recognition by the use of a joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6382–6389 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. T. S Yu, S. Jutamulia, T. W. Lin, D. A. Gregory, “Adaptive real-time pattern recognition using a liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1370–1372 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (2)

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Chen, Y. F.

Deutsch, M.

Ferreira, C.

García, J.

García-Martinez, P.

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D. A.

Javidi, B.

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Jutamulia, S.

Karim, M. A.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

Lin, T. W.

Lu, X. J.

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ludman, J. E.

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Mendlovic, D.

Millan, M. S.

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, T.

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K.

Rau, J. E.

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Weaver, C. S.

Yang, Z.

Yu, F. T. S

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Yzuel, M. J.

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martinez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mendlovic, M. Deutsch, C. Ferreira, J. García, “Single-channel polychromatic pattern recognition by the use of a joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6382–6389 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1250 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S Yu, S. Jutamulia, T. W. Lin, D. A. Gregory, “Adaptive real-time pattern recognition using a liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1370–1372 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the input plane for the multichannel, single-output color JTC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Locations of the correlation terms at the output plane. Capital letters in a correlation term refer to the color channels of the input scene; lowercase letters represent those of the target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for a real-time, multichannel, single-output color JTC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray-scale representations of the separation into the RGB color channels for the input scene and the target, respectively: (a) and (d) show the red (R) channel; (b) and (e) show the green (G) channel; (c) and (f) show the blue (B) channel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computer-simulation results for the input scene and target of Fig. 4 showing a three-dimensional plot of the region of interest at the output plane for the proposed method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results showing the intensity distribution at output plane of the JTC for the input scene and target of Fig. 4. The region of interest is marked with a rectangle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity profile distribution from Fig. 6 along a line connecting the two correlation peaks and passing through the main axes origin.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation-Simulation Results for the Seven Combinations of Color Channels: Minimum Detection-Threshold Values Applied in the Region of Interest at the Output Plane

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p ( x , y ) = K = 1 N f K ( x - a K , y - b K ) ,
I ( ξ , η ) = | K = 1 N F K ( ξ , η ) exp [ - i ( ξ a K + η b K ) ] | 2 = K = 1 N F K ( ξ , η ) 2 + K = 1 N J = 1 J K N F K ( ξ , η ) F J * ( ξ , η ) × exp [ i ξ ( a J - a K ) + i η ( b J - b K ) ] ,
O ( x , y ) = K = 1 N C K K ( x , y ) + K = 1 N J = 1 J K N C K J [ x - ( a J - a K ) , y - ( b J - b K ) ] ,
C K J ( x , y ) = f K ( x , y ) f J * ( x - x , y - y ) d x d y .
O ( x , y ) = O ( - x , - y ) .
p ( x , y ) = t r ( x - a 0 , y - b 0 ) + t g ( x - a 0 , y ) + t b ( x - a 0 , y + b 0 ) + f R ( x + a 0 , y - b 0 ) + f G ( x + a 0 , y ) + f B ( x + a 0 , y + b 0 ) .
S x D x ,             S y D y ,
C r R + C g G + C b B = t r f R + t g f G + t b f B ,
C r R + C g G + C b B 2 = C r R 2 + C g G 2 + C b B 2 + 2 C r R C g G + 2 C g G C b B + 2 C r R C b B .

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