Abstract

A novel method for performing color image recognition by the use of the coherent joint-transform correlator is introduced. The input plane of the proposed method is a spatial rearrangement of the separation into color channels of both the color input scene and the color target. This input plane is gray scaled and monochromatic, thus it can be displayed by the use of amplitude spatial light modulators to achieve real-time operation. The system provides a single output-plane result of the optical coherent addition of the separate channels’ correlation outputs. At the output plane no electronic postprocessing is needed, and the detection decision is achieved simply by the application of threshold detection. Experimental results and computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the abilities of this system.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1250 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. Rau, “Detection of differences in real distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1490–1494 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).
  6. B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martinez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Mendlovic, M. Deutsch, C. Ferreira, J. García, “Single-channel polychromatic pattern recognition by the use of a joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6382–6389 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. T. S Yu, S. Jutamulia, T. W. Lin, D. A. Gregory, “Adaptive real-time pattern recognition using a liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1370–1372 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (2)

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Chen, Y. F.

Deutsch, M.

Ferreira, C.

García, J.

García-Martinez, P.

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D. A.

Javidi, B.

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Jutamulia, S.

Karim, M. A.

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

Lin, T. W.

Lu, X. J.

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ludman, J. E.

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Mendlovic, D.

Millan, M. S.

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, T.

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K.

Rau, J. E.

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Weaver, C. S.

Yang, Z.

Yu, F. T. S

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Microcomputer-based programmable optical correlator for automatic pattern recognition and identification,” Opt. Lett. 11, 395–397 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

Yzuel, M. J.

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1250 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Circular-harmonic minimum average correlation energy filter for color pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2180–2187 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mendlovic, P. García-Martinez, J. García, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mendlovic, M. Deutsch, C. Ferreira, J. García, “Single-channel polychromatic pattern recognition by the use of a joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6382–6389 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. T. S Yu, S. Jutamulia, T. W. Lin, D. A. Gregory, “Adaptive real-time pattern recognition using a liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1370–1372 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint power spectrum based optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2358–2367 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

M. S. Alam, M. A. Karim, “Real-time optical arithmetic/logical processing,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 251–258 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Zhan, T. Minemoto, “Successful pattern matching with a large number of reference patterns using a joint transform correlator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 3471–3476 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched-filter and phase-only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, B. Javidi, “Multiobject detection using the binary joint transform correlator with different types of thresholding methods,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1793–1804 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. García, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Multichannel colour pattern recognition using a minimum average correlation energy filter,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 221–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. E. Ludman, B. Javidi, F. T. S. Yu, H. J. Caulfield, C. Warde, “Real-time color pattern recognition,” in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications I, U. Efron, ed., Proc. SPIE 465, 143–149 (1984).

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