Abstract

We describe an optical system developed to form the basis of a 64 × 64 free-space optical matrix–matrix crossbar switch. The design and performance of each of the main optical components is discussed: lenses, diffractive optical elements, and polarizing beamsplitters, together with the optomechanical hardware design. For these components, throughput levels of −6.9 dB have been achieved, which is compatible with full system operation at 10−12 bit error rates at ≥270 Mbits s−1.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Brenner, T. M. Merklein, “Implementation of an optical crossbar network based on directional switches,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2446–2451 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. J. Cloonan, “Free-space optical implementation of a feed-forward crossbar network,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2006–2012 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, “Self-routing crossbar packet switch employing free-space optics for chip-to-chip connections,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3721–3733 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Berthold, “Broadband electronic switching,” IEEE LCS Mag. 1, 35 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic broadband switching array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).
  10. A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).
  11. G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. Ohara, D. C. Burns, P. W. Mcowan, J. Gourlay, “Improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators—issues and achievements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2768–2774 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. codev is an optical design package produced by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.
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  15. J. M. Miller, “Synthesis of high efficiency diffractive optical elements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1993).
  16. J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: Fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (July1946).
  22. J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1916–1929 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Meredith, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, “Improved method for determining the optical constants of thin films and its application to molecular beam deposited polycrystalline layers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5619–5627 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).
  26. H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.
  27. H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

1995 (2)

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

1994 (4)

W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. Ohara, D. C. Burns, P. W. Mcowan, J. Gourlay, “Improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators—issues and achievements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2768–2774 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1916–1929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (5)

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Brenner, T. M. Merklein, “Implementation of an optical crossbar network based on directional switches,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2446–2451 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, “Self-routing crossbar packet switch employing free-space optics for chip-to-chip connections,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3721–3733 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).

1990 (2)

1987 (1)

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

Barrett, C. P.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Berthold, J. E.

J. E. Berthold, “Broadband electronic switching,” IEEE LCS Mag. 1, 35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Birch, M. J.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Brenner, K. H.

Brocklehurst, J. R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Browjohn, N. A.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Brownjohn, N. A.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Buller, G. S.

Burns, D. C.

Chipman, R. A.

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, “Self-routing crossbar packet switch employing free-space optics for chip-to-chip connections,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3721–3733 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, “Free-space optical implementation of a feed-forward crossbar network,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Crossland, W. A.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Dawkins, R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Dias, A. R.

Ekberg, M.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Gourlay, J.

Hall, T. J.

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).

Hara, E. M.

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic broadband switching array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hård, S.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Ichikawa, H.

Imam, H.

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

Jaakkola, T.

Jamieson, S.

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

Jenkins, B. K.

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).

Kuisma, S.

Larsson, M.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, “Self-routing crossbar packet switch employing free-space optics for chip-to-chip connections,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3721–3733 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

MacDonald, R. I.

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic broadband switching array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
[CrossRef]

MacNeille, S. M.

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (July1946).

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Mcowan, P. W.

Meredith, P.

Merklein, T. M.

Miller, J. M.

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, “Symmetries that simplify the design of spot array phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 464–471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Neilson, D. T.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Noponen, E.

Ohara, A.

Parkes, W.

W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Proudley, G. M.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Raghavendra, C. S.

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

Ross, N.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Sawchuck, A. A.

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Snook, M.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

Stace, C.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: Fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Thoms, S.

W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Turunen, J.

Underwood, I.

Varma, A.

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

Vass, D.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

Vass, D. G.

Vassara, A.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

P. Meredith, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, “Improved method for determining the optical constants of thin films and its application to molecular beam deposited polycrystalline layers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5619–5627 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

Westerholm, J.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, H. J.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woody, L. M.

Appl. Opt. (8)

T. J. Cloonan, “Free-space optical implementation of a feed-forward crossbar network,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, “Self-routing crossbar packet switch employing free-space optics for chip-to-chip connections,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3721–3733 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Brenner, T. M. Merklein, “Implementation of an optical crossbar network based on directional switches,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2446–2451 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Miller, T. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: Fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Meredith, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, “Improved method for determining the optical constants of thin films and its application to molecular beam deposited polycrystalline layers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5619–5627 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. Ohara, D. C. Burns, P. W. Mcowan, J. Gourlay, “Improving the performance of liquid-crystal-over-silicon spatial light modulators—issues and achievements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2768–2774 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1916–1929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

A. A. Sawchuck, B. K. Jenkins, C. S. Raghavendra, A. Varma, “Optical crossbar networks,” Computer 20, 50–60 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. I. MacDonald, E. M. Hara, “Optoelectronic broadband switching array,” Electron. Lett. 14, 502–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LCS Mag. (1)

J. E. Berthold, “Broadband electronic switching,” IEEE LCS Mag. 1, 35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (2)

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 183–186 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

W. Parkes, S. Thoms, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Application of electron-beam lithography to pattern submicron features in a beam-forming grating,” Microelectron. Eng. 23, 465–468 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnections,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vassara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

A. G. Kirk, S. Jamieson, H. Imam, T. J. Hall, “Experimental implementation of an optoelectronic matrix–matrix multiplier which incorporates holographic multiple imaging,” Opt. Comput. Process. 2, 293–304 (1992).

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, H. J. White, “Fabrication of 2D fiber optic arrays for an optical crossbar switch,” Opt. Eng. 33, 627–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEE (1)

A. G. Kirk, W. A. Crossland, T. J. Hall, “A compact and scaleable free-space optical crossbar,” Proc. IEE 342, 137–141 (1991).

Other (6)

codev is an optical design package produced by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.

J. M. Miller, “Synthesis of high efficiency diffractive optical elements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1993).

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (July1946).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Opto-mechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE 1533, 97–114 (1991).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, N. A. Browjohn, R. Dawkins, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, C. P. Barrett, D. T. Neilson, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, “The OCPM demonstrator system,” in Vol. 12 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Post deadline paper PPd1.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrams representing (a) the principle underlying a vector–matrix crossbar and (b) the matrix–matrix approach used in the crossbar proposed here. The center plane represents the SLM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General layout of the OCPM crossbar system and its main components. Light enters from the input fiber array on the left-hand side, reflects from the SLM, and is directed to the output fibers at the bottom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the principle underlying the fan-in stage: (a) the two-stage approach with a microlens (120 μm × 120 μm) and minilens (960 μm × 960 μm) array combination and (b) a single-stage approach with off-axis microlens arrays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Design of the relay lens with a 38.886-mm EFL with the telecentric stop and image planes shown. The ray trace shows an on-axis and an extreme off-axis beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spot positions at the SLM and fan-in planes and their dependence on the focal lengths of the relay lenses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One period (64 μm × 64 μm) of the 8 × 8 binary phase nonseparable fan-out grating. The black–white difference corresponds to a π phase change.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Geometry of a single facet of the single-stage fan-in array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One quadrant of one period of the diffractive element used to fan in an 8 × 8 signal array to one channel. The area shown is 480 μm × 480 μm, and the center of the periodic pattern is at the bottom left corner.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the experimentally determined angular performance (solid curves) and predicted angular dependence (dashed curves) of the PBS for both s and p polarizations on (a) reflection and (b) transmittance. The experimental measurements were made at a 790-nm input wavelength. The design is based on a 25-layer structure of alternating ZnSe and MgF2 layers, with SF10 glass prisms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimentally determined angular dependence of the contrasts for both transmission (solid curve) and reflection (dashed curve) plotted on a semilogarithmic graph.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Baseplate and components for the proposed crossbar switch. The components are (1) the input fiber array, (2, 6, 11) relay lenses, (3) fan-out grating, (4) polarizing beam-splitter cube, (5) SLM, (7) optional second PBS cube to increase contrast, (8) Risley prisms for beam steering, (9) output fiber array, (10) fan-in optics, (12) Ni-plated stainless-steel baseplate. Dimensions are in millimeters.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 rms Wave-Front Errors for the Three Lenses and the Overall Optical System Proposed Herea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Target Window Sizes and Deduced Spot Diametersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Optical Losses for Each Component Considered Here for the Position Corresponding to the Worst Channel

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ R = 100 ( I max - I min ) / ( I max + I min ) ,
A ( x , y ) = A ( x + 1 / 2 , y + 1 / 2 ) = 1 - A ( x + 1 / 2 , y ) = 1 - A ( x , y + 1 / 2 ) .
M f = ( m , n ) ( η ( m , n ) - η G / N ) 2 ,
s min = λ ( NA ) i + ( NA ) d ,
η = sinc 2 ( 1 / Z ) ,
x s - D / 2 < x < x s + D / 2 , y s - D / 2 < y < y s + D / 2 ,
θ ( x , y ) = k [ ( x s 2 + y s 2 + L s 2 ) 1 / 2 - { ( x - x s ) 2 + ( y - y s ) 2 + L s 2 } 1 / 2 + ( x F 2 + y F 2 + L F 2 ) 1 / 2 - { ( x - x F ) 2 + ( y - y F ) 2 + L s 2 } 1 / 2 ,
n λ θ ( x , y ) [ n + d 2 ] λ .
C 2 = T p R s T s R p = ( 1 - R p ) R s ( 1 - R s ) R p .
cos 2 θ = cos 2 α cos 2 β 1 - sin 2 α sin 2 β .
M = θ = 32 ° θ = 58 ° W ( θ ) { R p ( θ ) + T S ( θ ) } ,

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