Abstract

The dc drift of LiNbO3 (LN) optical intensity modulators is experimentally investigated from the viewpoint of the repeatability of the phenomenon. The drift has been assumed to be reversible and be independent of the magnitude of the applied dc bias. However, a bias voltage dependency of the dc drift is experimentally manifested here, especially under a high bias voltage. By an iterative dc bias application for the same LN modulator, the drift rate is increased, and a hysterisis appears in the drift/recovery cycles.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, “Progress and problems in reliability of Ti:LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators,” Opt. Eng. 34 (11), 3284–3293 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Nagata et al., “Improved long-term dc drift in OH-reduced lithium niobate optical intensity modulators,” Eng. & Lab. Notes in Opt. & Phot. News 7 (5) (1996).
  3. M. Seino et al., “Improvement of dc-drift characteristics in Ti:LiNbO3 modulator,” Technical Report of IEICE, OSC95-66, 55–60 (1995) [in Japanese].
  4. M. Minakata, “LiNbO3 optical waveguide devices,” IEICE Transactions, J77-C-I, 194–205 (1994) [in Japanese].
  5. S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, “RC circuit analysis of long-term Ti:LiNbO3 bias stability,” Technical Digest of IPR ’94 (Opt. Soc. Am., Washington, 1994), paper FB3.
  6. H. Nagata et al., “Estimation of direct current bias and drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1405–1408 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nagata et al., “Impurity evaluation of SiO2 film formed on LiNbO3 substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 606–609 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Nagata et al., “Improved long-term dc drift in OH-reduced lithium niobate optical intensity modulators,” Eng. & Lab. Notes in Opt. & Phot. News 7 (5) (1996).

1995 (3)

H. Nagata et al., “Estimation of direct current bias and drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1405–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata et al., “Impurity evaluation of SiO2 film formed on LiNbO3 substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 606–609 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, “Progress and problems in reliability of Ti:LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators,” Opt. Eng. 34 (11), 3284–3293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, J.

H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, “Progress and problems in reliability of Ti:LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators,” Opt. Eng. 34 (11), 3284–3293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S. K.

S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, “RC circuit analysis of long-term Ti:LiNbO3 bias stability,” Technical Digest of IPR ’94 (Opt. Soc. Am., Washington, 1994), paper FB3.

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, “LiNbO3 optical waveguide devices,” IEICE Transactions, J77-C-I, 194–205 (1994) [in Japanese].

Nagata, H.

H. Nagata et al., “Improved long-term dc drift in OH-reduced lithium niobate optical intensity modulators,” Eng. & Lab. Notes in Opt. & Phot. News 7 (5) (1996).

H. Nagata et al., “Estimation of direct current bias and drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1405–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata et al., “Impurity evaluation of SiO2 film formed on LiNbO3 substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 606–609 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, “Progress and problems in reliability of Ti:LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators,” Opt. Eng. 34 (11), 3284–3293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seino, M.

M. Seino et al., “Improvement of dc-drift characteristics in Ti:LiNbO3 modulator,” Technical Report of IEICE, OSC95-66, 55–60 (1995) [in Japanese].

Veselka, J. J.

S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, “RC circuit analysis of long-term Ti:LiNbO3 bias stability,” Technical Digest of IPR ’94 (Opt. Soc. Am., Washington, 1994), paper FB3.

Eng. & Lab. Notes in Opt. & Phot. News (1)

H. Nagata et al., “Improved long-term dc drift in OH-reduced lithium niobate optical intensity modulators,” Eng. & Lab. Notes in Opt. & Phot. News 7 (5) (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nagata et al., “Estimation of direct current bias and drift of Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1405–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nagata et al., “Impurity evaluation of SiO2 film formed on LiNbO3 substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 606–609 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, “Progress and problems in reliability of Ti:LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators,” Opt. Eng. 34 (11), 3284–3293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Seino et al., “Improvement of dc-drift characteristics in Ti:LiNbO3 modulator,” Technical Report of IEICE, OSC95-66, 55–60 (1995) [in Japanese].

M. Minakata, “LiNbO3 optical waveguide devices,” IEICE Transactions, J77-C-I, 194–205 (1994) [in Japanese].

S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, “RC circuit analysis of long-term Ti:LiNbO3 bias stability,” Technical Digest of IPR ’94 (Opt. Soc. Am., Washington, 1994), paper FB3.

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Figures (3)

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Voltages for the specific operating point of the same LN modulator during the operation at 130°C with biasing/unbiasing cycles. Applied dc bias voltages are denoted.

FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Normalized drift plots for Figure 1.

FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Dc drifts monitored three times at the same applied dc bias of 8 V.

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