Abstract

Long-term dc drift of lithium niobate optical intensity modulators is successfully reduced by exclusion of OHions from the lithium niobate substrate. In this regard, the titanium-indiffused waveguide is prepared on a commercial OH-free substrate under a dry gas atmosphere. The dc drift measured for these hermetically sealed modulators indicates a possibility for continuous operation over 20 years at 50°C.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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