Abstract

We describe a simple visible-light stray-background-reducing baffle, suitable for use on a stabilized interplanetary platform. The design is a corrallike enclosure with five concentric walls. The baffle reduces direct sunlight and reflections from illuminated portions of the spacecraft by a factor of 10−12, provided that all these lie beyond at least a hemisphere centered on the viewing aperture. With this condition these bright sources do not directly illuminate within the outermost wall of the corral, and diffraction over the wall tops is the dominant mechanism by which light reaches the corral interior. We present design calculations for such a corral, as well as a laboratory measurement confirming the basic design assumption.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).
  2. B. V. Jackson, C. Leinert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10759–10769 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Solar Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. V. Jackson, R. M. Benensohn, “The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers used for comet observations and views of the Comet West bow shock,” Earth, Moon Planets 48, 139–163 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).
  9. C. Leinert, D. Klüppelberg, “Stray light suppression in optical space experiments,” Appl. Opt. 13, 556–564 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. E. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).
  12. G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.
  13. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

1994 (1)

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

1991 (1)

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. V. Jackson, R. M. Benensohn, “The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers used for comet observations and views of the Comet West bow shock,” Earth, Moon Planets 48, 139–163 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10759–10769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Solar Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

1974 (1)

Antiochos, S. K.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Benensohn, R. M.

B. V. Jackson, R. M. Benensohn, “The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers used for comet observations and views of the Comet West bow shock,” Earth, Moon Planets 48, 139–163 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

Breault, R. P.

R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. E. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).

Brueckner, G.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Buffington, A.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Burlaga, L.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Cook, J. W.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Davila, J. M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Davis, J. M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Dere, K. P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Goldstein, B.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Harris, H.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Harvey, J. W.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Hick, P. L.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

Hildner, E.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Howard, R. A.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Illing, R. M. E.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. V.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. M. Benensohn, “The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers used for comet observations and views of the Comet West bow shock,” Earth, Moon Planets 48, 139–163 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10759–10769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Solar Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Kahler, S. W.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

Karpen, J. T.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Klimchuk, J. A.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Klüppelberg, D.

Koomen, M. J.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Korendyke, C. M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Koutchmy, S.

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LaBonte, B.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Lamy, P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Leinert, C.

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10759–10769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

C. Leinert, D. Klüppelberg, “Stray light suppression in optical space experiments,” Appl. Opt. 13, 556–564 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liewer, P.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Link, H.

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

Linker, J. A.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Michels, D. J.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Mikic, Z.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Moses, J. D.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Moulton, N. E.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Neugebauer, M.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Pitz, E.

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

Pizzo, V. J.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Prinz, D. K.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Rosenbauer, H.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Salm, N.

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

Schwenn, R.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Sheeley, N. R.

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Simnett, G.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Socker, D. G.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Webb, D. F.

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

Wu, S. T.

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

B. V. Jackson, A. Buffington, P. L. Hick, S. W. Kahler, D. F. Webb, “A spaceborne near-earth asteroid detection system,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 108, 279–285 (1994).

Earth, Moon Planets (1)

B. V. Jackson, R. M. Benensohn, “The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers used for comet observations and views of the Comet West bow shock,” Earth, Moon Planets 48, 139–163 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

B. V. Jackson, C. Leinert, “HELIOS images of solar mass ejections,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10759–10769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, R. A. Howard, N. R. Sheeley, D. J. Michels, M. J. Koomen, R. M. E. Illing, “HELIOS spacecraft and earth perspective observations of three looplike solar mass ejection transients,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5075–5081 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Webb, B. V. Jackson, “The identification and characteristics of solar mass ejections observed in the heliosphere with the HELIOS-2 photometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20641–20661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Jackson, “HELIOS spacecraft photometer observation of elongated corotating structures in the interplanetary medium,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11307–11318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys. (1)

B. V. Jackson, “Imaging of coronal mass ejections,” Solar Phys. 100, 563–575 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Leinert, E. Pitz, H. Link, N. Salm, “Calibration and in-flight performance of the zodiacal light experiment on HELIOS,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 257–270 (1981).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

S. Koutchmy, “Space-borne coronagraphy,” Space Sci. Rev. 47, 95–143 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. P. Breault, “Problems and techniques in stray radiation suppression,” in Stray Light Problems in Optical Systems, J. D. Lytle, H. E. Morrow, eds., Proc. SPIE107, 2–23 (1977).

G. Brueckner, S. T. Wu, G. Simnett, A. Buffington, B. V. Jackson, B. LaBonte, P. Lamy, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, L. Burlaga, J. M. Davila, J. M. Davis, B. Goldstein, H. Harris, P. Liewer, M. Neugebauer, S. K. Antiochos, J. W. Cook, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, J. T. Karpen, J. A. Klimchuk, C. M. Korendyke, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, D. K. Prinz, N. R. Sheeley, D. G. Socker, E. Hildner, V. J. Pizzo, J. W. Harvey, J. A. Linker, Z. Mikic, N. E. Moulton, “STEREO—a mission to observe the Sun and the heliosphere in three dimensions,” a proposal in response to NASA’s MIDEX announcement of flight opportunity, June1995.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating the design concept. Background light (arrows at left) is incident at angle θ d relative to the closest light direct from the sky (horizontal dashed line), reaching the optics aperture just over the top of final vane 5. The background light diffracts in turn off the sequence of vanes as shown schematically by a fan of rays on each. The main path for diffracted light reaching the aperture is shown by a ray of double thickness. Vane heights are chosen so each has a diffraction angle of θ d /N, for the ray just reaching the next vane edge, and (for the final vane) heading toward the optics aperture center (not shown) and through that to the light detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the single-knife-edge calculation. The opaque diffraction screen is in the xy plane with its edge below the origin of coordinates by height x. The light source (P 0) and observer (P) are located in the xz plane. The origin is on the straight line connecting P 0 and P. The dashed line with arrows indicates a light path diffracted from P 0 to P by the edge of the screen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of light intensity reduction I/I 0 as a function of the dimensionless variable W defined by Eq. (1). The familiar oscillations in the bright part of the image are pushed together, as |W| increases, by the logarithmic scale. In the shadow, the intensity drops off with |W| as an inverse square.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of total reduction factor for N = 5 vanes with heights optimized according to the scheme illustrated in Fig. 1. The curves are labeled with the power of 10 of the reduction. Wavelength λ = 0.5 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram providing an example of a minimal cone that contains all the bright background sources. A generic spacecraft is shown with solar panels 1 and 2 and a hypothetical instrument viewing a large dark-sky area approximately centered on the Z direction, from vantage point O above the spacecraft. Lines A, B, and C respectively indicate directions from O to the edge of the solar disk and to the two background light sources that most protrude into the field of view (in this case the furthest corners of the illuminated solar panels). A, B, and C are at respective angles Θ s , Θ1, and Θ2 relative to the Z axis. The Z axis can be chosen such that Θ s = Θ1 = Θ2 (=Θ m ). Directions to all other major background-light sources have Θ > Θ m . The cone with half-angle Θ m divides the sky into a portion containing an instrumental field of view that is free of bright background sources (Θ < Θ m ) and a portion, the minimal cone, pointing away from the field of view and containing all the bright background sources (Θ > Θ m ). The stray-light reduction method of this article can be employed when Θ m is greater than 90°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corral specifically designed for STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Event Observer).12 The outside size is 1.0 m × 0.5 m. The viewing optics is indicated schematically by the cylinder toward the rear center of the corral. The aperture center (where the lines cross) is close to the plane of the innermost corral wall.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laboratory optical test setup. Parallel light entering from left passes through a collimator slit and reaches the knife-edge array, center. Light passing by the array or diffracted past it travels toward the CCD light detector at right. This can be translated up and down in the figure to select the range of diffraction angles to be observed. Unwanted light is absorbed by the light baffle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observed fractional intensity as a function of CCD position for various numbers of knife edges. Expected calculations are also shown. The saturation level of the three-edge measurement at ~10−8 is proportional to the beam width passing by the first knife edge. This saturation could be caused by scattering in the air, or by incomplete absorption within the light baffle.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W = [ 2 λ ( 1 r + 1 s ) ] 1 / 2 x cos δ ,
I I 0 = 1 2 { [ 1 2 + C ( W ) ] 2 + [ 1 2 + S ( W ) ] 2 } ,
C ( W ) = 0 W cos ( π 2 τ 2 ) d τ ,
S ( W ) = 0 W sin ( π 2 τ 2 ) d τ ,

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