Abstract

We have made simultaneous temperature measurements by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) And absorption spectroscopy of OH in a CH4–air, lifted-diffusion flame. After we corrected the DFWM data for laser beam absorption of as much as 60%, the DFWM-based temperatures were in good agreement with temperatures derived strictly from the absorption data, as well as a one-dimensional reacting flow simulation.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).
  2. J. Pender, L. Hesselink, “Phase conjugation in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 10, 264–266 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Science 257, 1894–1900 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Dreier, D. Rakestraw, “Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics on OH and NH radicals in flames,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 479–485 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Smith, A. G. Astill, “Temperature measurement using degenerate four-wave mixing with non-saturating laser power,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 459–466 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Yip, P. M. Danehy, R. K. Hanson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing temperature measurements in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 17, 751–753 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Ewart, M. Kaczmarek, “Two-dimensional mapping of temperature in a flame by degenerate four-wave mixing in OH,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3996–3999 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Rahn, M. S. Brown, “Polarization properties of four-wave mixing in flame OH,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1249–1251 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. J. Germann, D. J. Rakestraw, “Multiplex spectroscopy: determining the transition moments and absolute concentrations of molecular species,” Science 264, 1750–1753 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Gordon, B. J. McBride, “Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions, rocket performance, incident and reflected shocks, and Chapman-Jouquet detonations,” NASA Spec. Publ. SP-273 (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, March1976).
  14. R. M. Kendall, J. T. Kelly, “Premixed one-dimensional flame (prof) code user’s manual,” Environ. Prot. Agency (U.S.) Publ. EPA-600/7-78-172a (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., August1978).
  15. J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

A. P. Smith, A. G. Astill, “Temperature measurement using degenerate four-wave mixing with non-saturating laser power,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 459–466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Germann, D. J. Rakestraw, “Multiplex spectroscopy: determining the transition moments and absolute concentrations of molecular species,” Science 264, 1750–1753 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Rahn, M. S. Brown, “Polarization properties of four-wave mixing in flame OH,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1249–1251 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Science 257, 1894–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yip, P. M. Danehy, R. K. Hanson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing temperature measurements in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 17, 751–753 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Dreier, D. Rakestraw, “Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics on OH and NH radicals in flames,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 479–485 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

Alber, G.

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldén, M.

K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Astill, A. G.

A. P. Smith, A. G. Astill, “Temperature measurement using degenerate four-wave mixing with non-saturating laser power,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 459–466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

Charlton, A.

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copeland, R. H.

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Danehy, P. M.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Yip, P. M. Danehy, R. K. Hanson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing temperature measurements in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 17, 751–753 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreier, T.

T. Dreier, D. Rakestraw, “Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics on OH and NH radicals in flames,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 479–485 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, P.

P. Ewart, M. Kaczmarek, “Two-dimensional mapping of temperature in a flame by degenerate four-wave mixing in OH,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3996–3999 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrow, R. L.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Science 257, 1894–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman-Hill, E. J.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fritzon, R.

K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Germann, G. J.

G. J. Germann, D. J. Rakestraw, “Multiplex spectroscopy: determining the transition moments and absolute concentrations of molecular species,” Science 264, 1750–1753 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

S. Gordon, B. J. McBride, “Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions, rocket performance, incident and reflected shocks, and Chapman-Jouquet detonations,” NASA Spec. Publ. SP-273 (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, March1976).

Hanson, R. K.

Hesselink, L.

Jeffries, J. B.

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

Kelly, J. T.

R. M. Kendall, J. T. Kelly, “Premixed one-dimensional flame (prof) code user’s manual,” Environ. Prot. Agency (U.S.) Publ. EPA-600/7-78-172a (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., August1978).

Kendall, R. M.

R. M. Kendall, J. T. Kelly, “Premixed one-dimensional flame (prof) code user’s manual,” Environ. Prot. Agency (U.S.) Publ. EPA-600/7-78-172a (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., August1978).

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

Liao, P. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

Lind, R. C.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

Lucht, R. P.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McBride, B. J.

S. Gordon, B. J. McBride, “Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions, rocket performance, incident and reflected shocks, and Chapman-Jouquet detonations,” NASA Spec. Publ. SP-273 (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, March1976).

Meacher, D. R.

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyholm, K.

K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pender, J.

Rahn, L. A.

Rakestraw, D.

T. Dreier, D. Rakestraw, “Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics on OH and NH radicals in flames,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 479–485 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rakestraw, D. J.

G. J. Germann, D. J. Rakestraw, “Multiplex spectroscopy: determining the transition moments and absolute concentrations of molecular species,” Science 264, 1750–1753 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Science 257, 1894–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. P.

A. P. Smith, A. G. Astill, “Temperature measurement using degenerate four-wave mixing with non-saturating laser power,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 459–466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

Yip, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Dreier, D. Rakestraw, “Degenerate four-wave mixing diagnostics on OH and NH radicals in flames,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 479–485 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Smith, A. G. Astill, “Temperature measurement using degenerate four-wave mixing with non-saturating laser power,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 459–466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nyholm, R. Fritzon, M. Aldén, “Single-pulse two-dimensional temperature imaging in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 37–43 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “The effects of collisional quenching on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. B. Jeffries, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, G. P. Smith, R. H. Copeland, D. R. Crosley, “Rotational-level-dependent quenching of OH(A2∑+) at flame temperatures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 160–166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Cooper, A. Charlton, D. R. Meacher, P. Ewart, G. Alber, “Revised theory of resonant four-wave mixing with broad-bandwidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 5705–5715 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “Detection of trace molecular species using degenerate four-wave mixing,” Science 257, 1894–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Germann, D. J. Rakestraw, “Multiplex spectroscopy: determining the transition moments and absolute concentrations of molecular species,” Science 264, 1750–1753 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high resolution spectroscopy by resonant four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983).

S. Gordon, B. J. McBride, “Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions, rocket performance, incident and reflected shocks, and Chapman-Jouquet detonations,” NASA Spec. Publ. SP-273 (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, March1976).

R. M. Kendall, J. T. Kelly, “Premixed one-dimensional flame (prof) code user’s manual,” Environ. Prot. Agency (U.S.) Publ. EPA-600/7-78-172a (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., August1978).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of raw data from a single 120-s measurement at 1 cm above the burner surface. The upper curve shows the absorption spectral profile, whereas the lower curve shows the DFWM profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured temperatures above the burner surface. The absorption data (circles), DFWM data (boxes), and the calculated equilibrium adiabatic flame temperature from Ref. 13 (arrow) are shown. A calculation (solid line) of prof, from Ref. 14, is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured OH mole fractions from absorption (boxes) above the burner surface. The solid curve shows the prof simulation.

Equations (1)

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I s ( J ) N 2 ( J ) I p I f I b ,

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