Abstract

I describe a method to derive biologically effective UV dose rates, total ozone abundances, and cloud optical depths from irradiance measurements with moderate bandwidth filter instruments that have only a few channels in the UV region. These quantities are determined when the measured irradiances are combined with radiative transfer calculations. The method was applied to a four-channel filter instrument with center wavelengths at 305, 320, 340, and 380 nm and bandwidths of 10 nm. I compared the instrument with a high-wavelength-resolution spectroradiometer during a 1-week period in San Diego, California, with variable cloudiness. The relative difference in Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE)-weighted UV dose rates for solar zenith angle’s (SZA’s) < 80° was 1.4 ± 3.2%. The relative difference for clear sky was 0.6 ± 1.5% for SZA’s < 80°. The total ozone inferred from the irradiance measurements with the filter instrument is insensitive to clouds. The instrument was compared with a Dobson and a Brewer instrument in Oslo, Norway, 60 °N, for more than 1 year. The relative difference in derived ozone abundance for the entire period, including cloudy days, was 0.3 ± 2.9%. The standard deviation was reduced to 1.9% when only clear sky and SZA’s < 60° were included. By using the total ozone and the cloud optical depth derived from the filter instrument as input to a radiative transfer model, one can compute a complete spectrum from 290 to 400 nm with 1-nm resolution. Such calculated spectra are in good agreement with spectra measured simultaneously with a high-wavelength-resolution spectroradiometer for clear as well as cloudy sky conditions and can be used to determine dose rates for any desired action spectrum. Only one UV-B channel and one UV-A channel are required to compute the spectra.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  2. World Meteorological Organisation, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994. WMO Global Ozone Monitoring Project, report 37 (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1994).
  3. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Paur, A. M. Bass, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. II. Results and temperature dependence,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–616.
  9. M. Nicolet, “On the molcular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. An empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Climate 6, 728–742 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiances with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).
  13. C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed. Proc. SPIE 2258, 654–663 (1994).
  14. A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchler, B. F. M. Bosnajakovic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 83–87.
  15. U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Air Force (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  16. G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.
  17. K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” Air pollution research report 53. European Commission. Directorate-General XII, Science, Research, and Development, L-2920 Luxembourg, Report EUR 16153 (1995).
  19. S. Madronich, “The atmosphere and UV-B radiation at ground level,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjorn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993).

1993 (3)

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Climate 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiances with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Nicolet, “On the molcular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. An empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

Bass, A. M.

R. J. Paur, A. M. Bass, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. II. Results and temperature dependence,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–616.

Booth, C. R.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed. Proc. SPIE 2258, 654–663 (1994).

Bowen, M.

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

Dahlback, A.

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, S. B.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchler, B. F. M. Bosnajakovic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 83–87.

Frederick, J. E.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” Air pollution research report 53. European Commission. Directorate-General XII, Science, Research, and Development, L-2920 Luxembourg, Report EUR 16153 (1995).

Hu, Y. X.

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Climate 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, Z.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, P. J.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” Air pollution research report 53. European Commission. Directorate-General XII, Science, Research, and Development, L-2920 Luxembourg, Report EUR 16153 (1995).

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

Lucas, T.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, T. B.

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Madronich, S.

S. Madronich, “The atmosphere and UV-B radiation at ground level,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjorn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993).

McElroy, C. T.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchler, B. F. M. Bosnajakovic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 83–87.

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Mestechkina, T.

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Mestechnica, T.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed. Proc. SPIE 2258, 654–663 (1994).

Morrow, J. H.

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed. Proc. SPIE 2258, 654–663 (1994).

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Neuschuler, D.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neuschuler, D. A.

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Nicolet, M.

M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiances with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolet, “On the molcular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. An empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paur, R. J.

R. J. Paur, A. M. Bass, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. II. Results and temperature dependence,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–616.

Saunders, R. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

Slusser, J.

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolskaia, I.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soulen, P. F.

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Climate 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, S.-C.

Tusson, J. R.

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).

Wiscombe, W. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

K. Stamnes, Z. Jin, J. Slusser, “Several-fold enhancement of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation levels at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the 1990 ozone ‘hole’,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1013–1016 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate (1)

Y. X. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Climate 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. E. Frederick, P. F. Soulen, S. B. Diaz, I. Smolskaia, C. R. Booth, T. Lucas, D. Neuschuler, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance observed from Southern Argentina: September 1990 to March 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, D5, 8891–8897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolet, “On the molcular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. An empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiances with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

R. J. Paur, A. M. Bass, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. II. Results and temperature dependence,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), pp. 611–616.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Pub. 230-20 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1987).

C. R. Booth, T. Mestechnica, J. H. Morrow, “Errors in the reporting of solar spectral irradiance using moderate bandwidth radiometers and experimental investigation,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed. Proc. SPIE 2258, 654–663 (1994).

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” in Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, W. R. Passchler, B. F. M. Bosnajakovic, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 83–87.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Air Force (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” Air pollution research report 53. European Commission. Directorate-General XII, Science, Research, and Development, L-2920 Luxembourg, Report EUR 16153 (1995).

S. Madronich, “The atmosphere and UV-B radiation at ground level,” in Environmental UV Photobiology, A. R. Young, L. O. Bjorn, J. Moan, W. Nultsch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1993).

C. R. Booth, T. B. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, J. R. Tusson, D. A. Neuschuler, J. H. Morrow, NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1993–1994 Operations Report (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1995).

World Meteorological Organisation, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994. WMO Global Ozone Monitoring Project, report 37 (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral distribution R(λ) F(λ) in the UV-B channel with a center wavelength of 305 nm and a bandwidth of 10 nm FWHM varies with total ozone abundance and SZA. R(λ) F(λ) was calculated for SZA = 0°, 300 DU (solid curve); SZA = 60°, 300 DU (dotted curve); and SZA = 60°, 400 DU (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Approximate UV dose rate [D approx in Eq. (5)] for the GUV-511 instrument is sensitive to ozone only for small ozone abundances in combination with small SZA’s and large ozone abundances in combination with large SZA’s. The error ɛ defined by [(D exactD approx)/D exact] was calculated as a function of a SZA < 90° and total ozone abundances Ω = 100–500 DU.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of CIE-weighted UV dose rates determined with the GUV-511 instrument and the SUV-100 spectroradiometer in San Diego for the period from 24 July to 1 August 1993 shown as 100(SUV-GUV)/SUV. (a) all data (variable cloud cover); (b) only data close to clear sky (τ < 10).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of daily total ozone abundance from the GUV-511 (dotted curve) and Dobson 56 and Brewer 42 instruments (solid curves) in Oslo, Norway (60 °N), for the period from 15 February 1994 to 20 August 1995. The data contain clear as well as cloudy days. (a) 1994 data; (b) 1995 data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CIE-weighted UV dose rates and cloud optical depths measured with a GUV-511 instrument on 10 October 1992 in Oslo. This demonstrates the clear anticorrelation between dose rate and cloud optical depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of calculated spectra based on derived ozone and cloud optical depth from measurements with GUV-511 (solid curves) and simultaneously measured spectra with SUV-100 (dashed curves) spectroradiometer in San Diego. Both a clear-sky case (τ = 5.3, 296 DU, 20.08 UTC, 24 July 1994) and a cloudy-sky case (τ = 32.1, 294 DU, 20.08 UTC, 25 July 1993) are shown. (a) UV-B region; (b) UV-A region.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V i = 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ .
R i ( λ ) = k i R i ( λ ) ,
k i = V i 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ = V i λ = 0 R i λ F λ Δ λ ,
D exact = 0 A ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ = λ = 0 A λ F λ Δ λ ,
D approx = i = 1 M a i V i .
i = 1 M a i V i = λ = 0 A λ F λ Δ λ .
i = 1 M a i k i λ = 0 R i λ F λ = λ = 0 A λ F λ .
D approx corrected = [ 1 + ɛ ( Ω , SZA ) ] D approx ,
N = V i / V j = ( λ = 0 R i λ F λ ) / ( λ = 0 R j λ F λ ) ,

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