Abstract

The magneto-optic Doppler analyzer (MODA) is a new type of passive optical instrument that one can use to measure the Doppler shift of the sodium nightglow emitted at approximately 91 km near the mesopause. From this measurement, horizontal wind signatures are inferred. The MODA is based on a sodium vapor magneto-optic filter that provides inherent wavelength stability at a low cost. The instrument has been used to take nightly zonal and meridional wind measurements since October 1994 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40 °N, 105 °W). We obtained an internally consistent wind signal and measured the semidiurnal tide for several seasons.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave forcing and effects in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: a Review of Experiment and Theory, R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, eds. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–100.
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  13. A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “The magneto-optical filter. II. Velocity field measurements,” Sol. Phys. 59, 179–189 (1978).
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  14. S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961), p. 571.
  16. C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Chen, C. Y. She, Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. 80523 (personal communication, 1995).
  18. S. Chapman, “Notes on atmospheric sodium,” Astrophys. J. 90, 309–316 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Hernandez, “Reaction broadening of the line profiles of atomic sodium in the night airglow,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 103–105 (1975).
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  20. G. Hernandez, “The signature profiles of O(1S) in the airglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 19, 467–476 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Sipler, M. Biondi, “Interferometric studies of the twilight and nightglow sodium D-line profiles,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 65–73 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Yeh, “Dispersive magnetooptic filters,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2069–2075 (1982).
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  24. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  25. H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1019–1021 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. P. Hickey, J. M. C. Plane, “A chemical-dynamical model of wave-driven sodium fluctuations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2861–2864 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. L. Jerde, L. E. Peterson, W. Stein, “Effects of high energy radiations on noise pulses from photomultiplier tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1387–1394 (1967).
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  29. R. R. Clark, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824 (personal communication via M. Hagan, 1995).
  30. A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).
  31. B. P. Williams, M. Hagan, S. Tomczyk, “Observations of the semidiurnal tide at the mid-latitude mesopause with the magneto-optic Doppler analyzer,” Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.
  32. D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. Valentic, S. Palo, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication, 1995).

1995 (2)

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hickey, J. M. C. Plane, “A chemical-dynamical model of wave-driven sodium fluctuations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2861–2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1019–1021 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. S. Gardner, “Sodium resonance fluorescence lidar applications in atmospheric science and astronomy,” Proc. IEEE 77, 408–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. L. Salby, “Survey of planetary-scale traveling waves: the state of theory and observations,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22, 209–236 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1978 (2)

D. Sipler, M. Biondi, “Interferometric studies of the twilight and nightglow sodium D-line profiles,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 65–73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “The magneto-optical filter. II. Velocity field measurements,” Sol. Phys. 59, 179–189 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Hernandez, “Reaction broadening of the line profiles of atomic sodium in the night airglow,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 103–105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

G. Hernandez, “The signature profiles of O(1S) in the airglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 19, 467–476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

M. Cimino, A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “Some developments of the magnetic beam absorption filter,” Sol. Phys. 11, 319–333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. L. Jerde, L. E. Peterson, W. Stein, “Effects of high energy radiations on noise pulses from photomultiplier tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1387–1394 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

C. O. Hines, “Internal gravity waves at ionospheric heights,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1481 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

S. Chapman, “Notes on atmospheric sodium,” Astrophys. J. 90, 309–316 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aruliah, A.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Avery, J. P.

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Avery, S. K.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Biondi, M.

D. Sipler, M. Biondi, “Interferometric studies of the twilight and nightglow sodium D-line profiles,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 65–73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brun, J. F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cacciani, A.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “The magneto-optical filter. II. Velocity field measurements,” Sol. Phys. 59, 179–189 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Cimino, A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “Some developments of the magnetic beam absorption filter,” Sol. Phys. 11, 319–333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Card, G.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chambellan, C.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961), p. 571.

Chapman, S.

S. Chapman, “Notes on atmospheric sodium,” Astrophys. J. 90, 309–316 (1939).
[CrossRef]

S. Chapman, R. S. Lindzen, Atmospheric Tides (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1970).

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1019–1021 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. 80523 (personal communication, 1995).

Cimino, M.

M. Cimino, A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “Some developments of the magnetic beam absorption filter,” Sol. Phys. 11, 319–333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. R.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Clark, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 03824 (personal communication via M. Hagan, 1995).

Clemesha, B. R.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elmore, D.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, E. L.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Fofi, M.

A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “The magneto-optical filter. II. Velocity field measurements,” Sol. Phys. 59, 179–189 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Cimino, A. Cacciani, M. Fofi, “Some developments of the magnetic beam absorption filter,” Sol. Phys. 11, 319–333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, J. M.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S. J.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Fritts, D. C.

D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave forcing and effects in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: a Review of Experiment and Theory, R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, eds. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 89–100.
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave-tidal interactions in the middle atmosphere: observations and theory,” in The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: a Review of Experiment and Theory, R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, eds. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 121–131.
[CrossRef]

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

C. S. Gardner, “Sodium resonance fluorescence lidar applications in atmospheric science and astronomy,” Proc. IEEE 77, 408–418 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, M.

B. P. Williams, M. Hagan, S. Tomczyk, “Observations of the semidiurnal tide at the mid-latitude mesopause with the magneto-optic Doppler analyzer,” Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hedin, A. E.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, “Reaction broadening of the line profiles of atomic sodium in the night airglow,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 103–105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, “Feedback stabilized Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 126–130 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, “The signature profiles of O(1S) in the airglow,” Planet. Space Sci. 19, 467–476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, M. P.

M. P. Hickey, J. M. C. Plane, “A chemical-dynamical model of wave-driven sodium fluctuations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2861–2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hines, C. O.

C. O. Hines, “Internal gravity waves at ionospheric heights,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1481 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hull, H.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Jerde, R. L.

R. L. Jerde, L. E. Peterson, W. Stein, “Effects of high energy radiations on noise pulses from photomultiplier tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1387–1394 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Leary, M. J.

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
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Lindzen, R. S.

S. Chapman, R. S. Lindzen, Atmospheric Tides (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1970).

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A. H.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Melo, S. M. L.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mills, O. A.

Obert, R. L.

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palo, S.

T. Valentic, S. Palo, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication, 1995).

Palo, S. E.

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, L. E.

R. L. Jerde, L. E. Peterson, W. Stein, “Effects of high energy radiations on noise pulses from photomultiplier tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1387–1394 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Plane, J. M. C.

M. P. Hickey, J. M. C. Plane, “A chemical-dynamical model of wave-driven sodium fluctuations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2861–2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salah, J. E.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salby, M. L.

M. L. Salby, “Survey of planetary-scale traveling waves: the state of theory and observations,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22, 209–236 (1984).
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Schmidlin, F. J.

A. E. Hedin, E. L. Fleming, A. H. Manson, F. J. Schmidlin, S. K. Avery, S. J. Franke, Empirical Wind Model for the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. Part 1: Local Time Average, NASA tech. manual 10-4591 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Schminder, R.

J. E. Salah, R. R. Clark, J. M. Forbes, A. H. Manson, S. K. Avery, R. Schminder, “Radar observations of the semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56, 1251–1261 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Searcy, P.

Sechrist, C. F.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Segal, A. C.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
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She, C. Y.

H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, “Sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1019–1021 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. 80523 (personal communication, 1995).

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simonich, D. M.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D.

D. Sipler, M. Biondi, “Interferometric studies of the twilight and nightglow sodium D-line profiles,” Planet. Space Sci. 26, 65–73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stein, W.

R. L. Jerde, L. E. Peterson, W. Stein, “Effects of high energy radiations on noise pulses from photomultiplier tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 38, 1387–1394 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Streander, K.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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G. Thuillier, M. Herse, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
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Tomczyk, S.

S. Tomczyk, K. Streander, G. Card, C. Chambellan, D. Elmore, H. Hull, A. Cacciani, “An instrument to observe low degree solar oscillations,” Sol. Phys. 159, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Williams, M. Hagan, S. Tomczyk, “Observations of the semidiurnal tide at the mid-latitude mesopause with the magneto-optic Doppler analyzer,” Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

Valentic, T.

T. Valentic, S. Palo, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309 (personal communication, 1995).

Valentic, T. A.

S. K. Avery, J. P. Avery, T. A. Valentic, S. E. Palo, M. J. Leary, R. L. Obert, “A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric wind measurements,” Radio Sci. 25, 657–669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry-Perot Interferometer: History, Theory, Practice and Applications (Hilger, Philadelphia, 1989), pp. 137 and 59.

Voelz, D. G.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, “Lidar studies of the nighttime sodium layer over Urbana, Illinois,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659–13673 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wickwar, V. B.

D. Rees, A. Aruliah, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, V. B. Wickwar, R. J. Sica, “Winds in the upper mesosphere at mid-latitude: first results using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1259–1262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. P.

B. P. Williams, M. Hagan, S. Tomczyk, “Observations of the semidiurnal tide at the mid-latitude mesopause with the magneto-optic Doppler analyzer,” Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
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Yeh, P.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (1)

S. Chapman, “Notes on atmospheric sodium,” Astrophys. J. 90, 309–316 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C. O. Hines, “Internal gravity waves at ionospheric heights,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1441–1481 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

G. Hernandez, “Reaction broadening of the line profiles of atomic sodium in the night airglow,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 103–105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, H. Takahashi, S. M. L. Melo, “A simultaneous measurement of the vertical profiles of sodium nightglow and atomic sodium density in the upper atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1347–1350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Altitude profile of sodium density in October 1994 determined by the Colorado State University lidar in Fort Collins.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top: Calculated sodium nightglow emission profile. Bottom: Experimental MODA transmission profiles for the sodium D2 line obtained on the Colorado State University (CSU) lidar. T f and T ws are the temperatures of the sodium reservoirs for the first and second vapor cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement geography for MODA (squares), the Platteville meteor radar (asterisk), the Colorado State University lidar in Fort Collins (triangle), and the Bear Lake Observatory FPI (pluses).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Instrument schematic showing the layout of the optics and electronics. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MOF schematic showing the evolution of the spectrum. The arrows indicate the polarization, the irregular shapes are the sodium vapor clouds, B1 and B2 are the applied magnetic fields, and P1 and P2 are crossed polarizers. Light entering the system is polarized by P1, and the continuum is extincted by P2. Light near the resonance lines is rotated by Faraday rotation and the Zeeman effect and is passed by P2. The quarter-wave plate circularly polarizes the light. In the second vapor, the magnetic field splits the line into two components that absorb different senses of circular polarization. Rotating the quarter-wave plate shifts the passband from side to side.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Second sodium vapor cell surrounded by its magnet assembly.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average winds for five nights between 22–29 October 1994 (UT). The value is the weighted average of all measurements taken each night. The error bars show the standard deviation in the mean of the measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Semidiurnal tide for summer 1995. The error bars show the standard deviation in the mean of the measurements. SD, semidiurnal; Rmul, multiple linear correlation coefficient.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Semidiurnal tide for autumn 1995. The error bars show the standard deviation in the mean of the measurements. SD, semidiurnal; Rmul, multiple linear correlation coefficient.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Winds, emission intensities, moon position, and instrument temperature measured by the MODA on the night of 26 October 1994 (UT). The intensity measured to the zenith is the solid curve, north is the dotted curve, east is the dashed curve, south is the dash–dot curve, and west is the dash–dot–dot–dot curve. In the plot of the moon position, the horizon is shown as a circle, and the moon track is labeled with the starting and ending hours.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Instrument Parameters

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Table 2 Calibration Errors

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Table 3 Instrument Transmission

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Table 4 Comparison of Throughput Parameters

Equations (9)

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Na + O 3 NaO + O 2 ,
NaO + O Na ( P 2 , S 2 ) + O 2 ,
Na ( P 2 3 2 , 1 2 ) Na ( S 2 1 2 ) + h ν ( 589.0 , 589.6 nm ) .
I ( Δ λ ) = A [ erf ( a Δ λ + b ) - erf ( a Δ λ - b ) ] ,
a = - c λ 0 ( m NaO 2 2 k T ) 1 / 2 ,             b = ( 2.392 E D Na k T ) 1 / 2 .
T Far = 1 2 exp ( - τ + ) exp ( - τ - ) sin 2 α .
T Zeeman = 1 8 [ exp ( - τ + ) - exp ( - τ - ) ] 2 .
V ( m s - 1 ) = K × C r - C b C r + C b + V 0 .
Δ V = K × ( C r + C b + 4 B + 4 D ) 1 / 2 C r + C b = K × ( 1 + 2 B / C + 2 D / C ) 1 / 2 ( 2 C ) 1 / 2 .

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