Abstract

I describe the generation of broadly tunable harmonic photons with energies to 80 eV from a laser system that produces 200-fs pulses of 0.5-mJ 610-nm light at a repetition rate of 540 Hz. The harmonics are produced by focusing of the 610-nm light into high densities of rare gas atoms produced at the output of a pulsed valve. Harmonic photons are wavelength selected by a grazing incidence toroidal grating and refocused onto samples that reside in a vacuum analysis chamber. Valence and atomic core-level photoemission spectra generated with this light are described.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-picosecond 1053 nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, “High order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, R. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in He,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Investigations of above threshold ionization using subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 24, 325–347 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. F. Gallagher, “Above threshold ionization in low frequency limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2304–2307 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853–1857 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).
  13. K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-picosecond 1053 nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, “High order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, R. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in He,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Investigations of above threshold ionization using subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 24, 325–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. F. Gallagher, “Above threshold ionization in low frequency limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2304–2307 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Allendorf, S. W.

J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).

Bachrach, R. Z.

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-picosecond 1053 nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bringans, R. D.

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Investigations of above threshold ionization using subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 24, 325–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Budil, K. S.

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).

Burnett, N. H.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, J. K.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, R. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in He,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).

DaSilva, L. B.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R.

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Investigations of above threshold ionization using subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 24, 325–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

T. F. Gallagher, “Above threshold ionization in low frequency limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2304–2307 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haight, R.

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

Himpsel, F. J.

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hollinger, G.

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-picosecond 1053 nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFeely, F. R.

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, K.

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, “High order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morar, J. F.

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olmstead, M. A.

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peale, D. R.

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, R. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in He,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).

Pollak, R. A.

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, “High order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salieres, P.

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Trevor, D. J.

D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Uhrberg, R. I. G.

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Woerkum, L. D.

D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (3)

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Investigations of above threshold ionization using subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 24, 325–347 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki, H. Sakai, “High order harmonic generation in rare gases with intense subpicosecond dye laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 25, L83–L89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. DaSilva, M. D. Perry, “Energy yield and conversion efficiency measurements of high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Budil, P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3437–3440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, “High harmonic generation and correlated two electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585–R3588 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. J. Himpsel, J. F. Morar, F. R. McFeely, R. A. Pollak, G. Hollinger, “Core level shifts and oxidation states of Ta and W: electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis applied to surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 7236–7241 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Bringans, M. A. Olmstead, R. I. G. Uhrberg, R. Z. Bachrach, “Interface formation of GaAs with Si(100), Si(111) and Ge(111): core level spectroscopy for monolayer coverages of GaAs, Ga and As,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9569–9574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-picosecond 1053 nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, “High order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Gallagher, “Above threshold ionization in low frequency limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2304–2307 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Trevor, L. D. van Woerkum, R. R. Freeman, “Parabolic mirror time of flight electron energy analyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051–1054 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. K. Crane, S. W. Allendorf, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, “Resonantly enhanced high order harmonic generation,” in Superintense Laser Fields: Generation, Interaction with Matter, and X-ray Sources, S. V. Gaponov, V. M. Gordienko, eds., Proc. SPIE 1800, 146–154 (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus, showing the synchronously pumped dye laser and 540-Hz Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier. The differentially pumped beam lines, toroidal grating monochromater, and vacuum analysis chamber are shown as well. Although not discussed in this paper, a beam splitter and variable delay line are available for carrying out excite–probe experiments. A blowup of the pulsed gas valve is shown as well. The inset shows a cross-sectional view of the parabolic mirror time-of-flight detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoemission count rate from a clean polycrystalline W foil as a function of harmonic number for Ar and Ne gases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoemission from a clean polycrystalline W foil with 71.2-eV light. The valence bands are observed at low binding energies, and the spin-orbit split W 4f 5/2 and 7/2 core states are observed at −33 and −31 eV. The data were collected with a parabolic mirror time-of-flight electron-energy analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blowup of the As 3d 3/2 and 5/2 spin-orbit split core states collected from a single monolayer of As deposited on Ge (111) for a photon energy of 67.2 eV.

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