Abstract

The performance factors associated with self-electro-optic-effect-device- (SEED-) based smart-pixel arrays are analyzed in terms of semiconductor technology and pixel complexity. The sorting task is chosen as a practical example. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)–SEED 2 × 2 self-routing nodes operated with quasi-cw-mode lasers are shown to provide the maximum processing power and on-or off-chip communication rate. The need for new front-end amplifiers for the smart-pixel technology is emphasized.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995 (2)

1994 (13)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Tan, S. Eriksson, “Low-power chip-to-chip communication circuits,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1732–1733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (7)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

C. W. Stirk, “Cost models of components for free-space optically interconnected systems,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks and Memories, Proc. SPIE 1773, 231–241 (1993).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (4)

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Marcus, “A CMOS Batcher and Banyan chip set for B-ISDN packet switching,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 25, 1426–1432 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum well self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

1989 (2)

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare- and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix-2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 29, 20–27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, S.

Asom, M.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Asom, M. T.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

Baillie, D. A.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Batcher, K. E.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 32 of Proceedings Series (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Virginia, 1968), pp. 307–314.

Beckman, M. G.

Bennion, I.

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Black, P.

Blair, P.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Borghs, G.

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Butner, S. E.

S. I. Long, S. E. Butner, “Gallium arsenide digital integrated circuit design,” McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Cavaillès, J. A.

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S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
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D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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Chirovsky, L. M. F.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
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T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
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G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Cho, A. Y.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Crisci, R. J.

Crols, J.

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D'Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Dines, J. A. B.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Dunn, M. H.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Focht, M.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

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S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

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A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

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M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Henry, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
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P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
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Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

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Hinton, H. S.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
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S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

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D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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Kiamilev, F. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
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Kirkby, C.

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
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F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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Kuijk, M.

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Laskowski, E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Lee, S. H.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Lentine, A. L.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
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F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
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L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

LoCicero, J. L.

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loh, L. M.

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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W. S. Marcus, “A CMOS Batcher and Banyan chip set for B-ISDN packet switching,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 25, 1426–1432 (1990).
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McElhinney, M.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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Miller, D. A. B.

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum well self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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Moseley, A.

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

Neilson, D. T.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Novotny, R. A.

Ozguz, V. H.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paturi, R.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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Pei, S.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Pottier, F.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Prince, S. M.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Przybylek, G.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Ren, F.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Richards, G. W.

Sasian, J. L.

Sasian, J. M.

Sauer, K.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Schmitt-Rink, S.

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
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Sibbett, W.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Sivco, D. L.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Sizer, T.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Skogen, J.

M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

Smith, L.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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Snowdon, J. F.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

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Stanley, C.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Stanley, C. R.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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Toll, B.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
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Tooley, F. A. P.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Underwood, I.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Unger, G.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanderplas, G.

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vass, D. G.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Vinattieri, A.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vounckx, R.

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A. J.

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

Walker, A. C.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Walker, S. L.

Wherrett, B. S.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

Wiegmann, W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, L. C.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

Wojcik, M. J.

Woodward, T. K.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Yu, A.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
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C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare- and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Tan, S. Eriksson, “Low-power chip-to-chip communication circuits,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1732–1733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid State Circuits (2)

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Marcus, “A CMOS Batcher and Banyan chip set for B-ISDN packet switching,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 25, 1426–1432 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix-2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 29, 20–27 (1980).
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J. Light. Technol. (1)

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (8)

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
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Opt. Comput. Process. (1)

B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum well self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Optical Computing 1992 (1)

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks and Memories (1)

C. W. Stirk, “Cost models of components for free-space optically interconnected systems,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks and Memories, Proc. SPIE 1773, 231–241 (1993).

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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

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