Abstract

The performance factors associated with self-electro-optic-effect-device- (SEED-) based smart-pixel arrays are analyzed in terms of semiconductor technology and pixel complexity. The sorting task is chosen as a practical example. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)–SEED 2 × 2 self-routing nodes operated with quasi-cw-mode lasers are shown to provide the maximum processing power and on-or off-chip communication rate. The need for new front-end amplifiers for the smart-pixel technology is emphasized.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995 (2)

1994 (13)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Tan, S. Eriksson, “Low-power chip-to-chip communication circuits,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1732–1733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (7)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

C. W. Stirk, “Cost models of components for free-space optically interconnected systems,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks and Memories, Proc. SPIE 1773, 231–241 (1993).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (4)

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Marcus, “A CMOS Batcher and Banyan chip set for B-ISDN packet switching,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 25, 1426–1432 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Quantum well self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, S61–S98 (1990).

1989 (2)

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare- and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. R. Jesshope, “The implementation of fast radix-2 transforms on array processors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 29, 20–27 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, S.

Asom, M.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Asom, M. T.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

Baillie, D. A.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Batcher, K. E.

K. E. Batcher, “Sorting networks and their applications,” in Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Vol. 32 of Proceedings Series (American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Reston, Virginia, 1968), pp. 307–314.

Beckman, M. G.

Bennion, I.

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Black, P.

Blair, P.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Butner, S. E.

S. I. Long, S. E. Butner, “Gallium arsenide digital integrated circuit design,” McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Cavaillès, J. A.

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S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
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D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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Chirovsky, L. M. F.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
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T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

Crisci, R. J.

Crols, J.

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D'Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Focht, M.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

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S. R. Forrest, H. S. Hinton, “Introduction to the special issue on smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 598–599 (1993).

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

Fox, A. M.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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Gossard, A. C.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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Grant, N. L.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

Grung, B. L.

M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

Guth, G.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Henry, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
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P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
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Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

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Hinton, H. S.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
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D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiamilev, F. A.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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Kiamilev, F. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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Kirkby, C.

M. Goodwin, A. Moseley, M. Kearley, R. Morris, C. Kirkby, J. Thompson, R. Goodfellow, I. Bennion, “Opto-electronic component array for optical interconnection of circuits and subsystems,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1639–1644 (1991).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, P. J. Marchand, F. E. Kiamilev, S. C. Esener, “Grain-size considerations for optoelectronic multistage interconnection networks,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5480–5507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

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Laskowski, E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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Lee, S. H.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Lentine, A. L.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
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T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
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T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
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L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
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F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
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Livescu, G.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, G. Livescu, “Wavelength optimization of quantum well modulators in smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 34, 323–332 (1995).
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A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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LoCicero, J. L.

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
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Loh, L. M.

L. M. Loh, J. L. LoCicero, A. L. Lentine, “S-SEED switching characteristics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 2122–2130 (1994).
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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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F. E. Kiamilev, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. C. Esener, S. H. Lee, “Performance comparison between optoelectronics and VLSI multistage interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1674–1692 (1991).
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G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, “Optimization of absorption in symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices: a systems perspective,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2431–2439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “Quantum well carrier sweep-out: relation to electro-absorption and exciton saturation,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2281–2295 (1991).
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A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. d'Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2153–2163 (1990).
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A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self-electro-optic-effect device: optical reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1929–1936 (1989).
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S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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Novotny, R. A.

Ozguz, V. H.

D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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D. T. Lu, V. H. Ozguz, P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, F. A. Kiamilev, R. Paturi, S. H. Lee, S. C. Esener, “Design trade-offs in optoelectronic parallel processing systems using smart SLM's,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S379–S403 (1992).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Pottier, F.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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Prince, S. M.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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Przybylek, G.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Ren, F.

T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Richards, G. W.

Sasian, J. L.

Sasian, J. M.

Sauer, K.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, “Linear and nonlinear properties of semiconductor quantum wells,” Adv. Phys. 38, 89–188 (1989).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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Sivco, D. L.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Sizer, T.

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
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Skogen, J.

M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, S. D. Mukherjee, B. L. Grung, J. Skogen, “GaAs OEICs for opto-electronic smart pixels,” in LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Lasers and Optoelectronics Society, New York, 1993), pp. 26–27.

Smith, L.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
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D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Unger, G.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanderplas, G.

M. Ingels, G. Vanderplas, J. Crols, M. Steyaert, “A CMOS 18-THz-Omega 240 Mb/b transimpedance amplifier and 155 Mb/s LED-driver for low-cost optical fiber links,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 29, 1552–1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vass, D. G.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Vinattieri, A.

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vounckx, R.

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A. J.

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

Walker, A. C.

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

Wherrett, B. S.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, S. Bowman, A. Kashko, “Digital optical circuits for 2-D data processing,” in Optical Computing 1992, Proc. SPIE 1806, 333–346 (1992).

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 265–275 (1984).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

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A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance analysis of cascaded self-electro-optic-effect device arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1368–1375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
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A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D'Asaro, E. Laskowski, S. Pei, M. Focht, J. Freund, G. Guth, R. Leibenguth, L. Smith, T. K. Woodward, “Field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect device (FET-SEED) electrically addressed differential modulator array,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2849–2855 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. A. B. Dines, N. L. Grant, D. A. Baillie, B. S. Wherrett, P. W. Foulk, S. Ashcroft, P. Black, “Perfect-shuffle interconnected bitonic sorter: optoelectronic design,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5077–5090 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. J. Goodwill, A. C. Walker, C. R. Stanley, M. C. Holland, M. McElhinney, “Improvements in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAs optical modulators for 1047-nm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1192–1994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, G. Borghs, “Differential optical pnpn switch operating at 16 MHz with 250 fJ optical input energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 19–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. A. Cavaillès, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength dependence of saturation and thermal effects in multiple quantum well modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1715–1717 (1993).
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Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, G. Unger, “1047-nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system,” Electron. Lett. 29, 678–679 (1993).
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S. Yu, S. R. Forrest, “Implementations of smart pixels for optoelectronic processors and interconnection systems. 2. SEED-based technology and comparison with optoelectronic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1670–1680 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, W. H. Know, B. Toll, A. Vinattieri, M. T. Asom, “Experimental studies of proton-implanted GaAs/Al-GaAs multiple quantum well modulators for low photocurrent applications,” J. Quantum Electron. 16, 2854–2865 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart-pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1167–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Experimental sensitivity studies of diode-clamped FET-SEED smart pixel optical receivers,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2319–2324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, T. K. Woodward, U. Keller, K. Sauer, T. H. Chiu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of carrier escape rates, exciton saturation intensity and saturation density in electrically biased multiple-quantum-well modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 30, 399–407 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to opto-electronics smart pixels,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
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B. S. Wherrett, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, J. F. Snowdon, “Operating conditions for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices within digital optical circuits,” Opt. Comput. Process. 3, 19–38 (1993).

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T. K. Woodward, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, L. A. d'Asaro, E. Laskowski, M. Focht, G. Guth, S. Pei, F. Ren, G. Przybylek, L. Smith, R. Leibenguth, M. Asom, R. Kopf, J. Kuo, M. Feuer, “Operation of a fully integrated GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs FET-SEED: a basic optically addressed integrated circuit,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 616–618 (1992).

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P. W. Foulk, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, J. G. Crowder, N. L. Grant, B. S. Wherrett, “Arrays of processing nodes for massively parallel sorting sorting using optical switching and interconnect,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on ASIC, ASICON (IEEE Beijing Section, Beijing, China, 1994), pp. 201–204.

M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, J. A. B. Dines, “Optical, algorithmic and electronic considerations on the desirable ‘smartness’ of optical processing pixels,” in Optical Computing 1994, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds., Vol. 139 of Proceedings Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1995), pp. 489–492.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, F. A. P. Tooley, D. T. Neilson, J. A. B. Dines, D. A. Baillie, S. M. Prince, L. C. Wilkinson, M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, J. F. Snowdon, B. S. Wherrett, C. Stanley, F. Pottier, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, W. Sibbett, M. H. Dunn, “Construction of demonstration parallel optical processors based on CMOS/InGaAs smart pixel technology,” in Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, E. Schenfeld, ed. (IEEE Computer Societies Press, Los Alamos, N.M., 1995), pp. 180–187.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Snowdon, A. J. Waddie, B. S. Wherrett, “Efficient deployment of digital processing modules,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE1773, 193–197 (1992).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Functional schematic diagram of the EX-CLIP architecture used for data sorting. An unsorted 2-D array of input data beams circulates a fixed number of times around the processing loop before being output to the output SLM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the Batcher bitonic sorting of eight numbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Architectures for the 2 × 2 CMOS-SEED- or FET-SEED-based bitonic sorter. Each sorting node (gray box) encompasses the exchange–bypass (e/b) and the sorting logic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Architecture for the L-SEED-based bitonic sorter. The functionality of the sorting is distributed over several specifically designed L-SEED's.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Architecture for the S-SEED-based bitonic sorter. Only nor and nand operations are permitted for S-SEED's, resulting in a more complex architecture than that shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental SEED-responsivity S curves at wavelengths of λ0 (solid curves) and λ1 (dashed curves). The two-line idealized models are also represented (straight, solid line segments). The superscripts 0 and 1 represent λ0 and λ1 operation, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental SEED reflectivity R at λ0 (solid curves) and λ1 (dashed curves), and the two-line idealized models (straight, solid line segments). The superscripts 0 and 1 are the same as for Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Functional schematic diagram of a smart pixel. The different times depicted are explained in the text.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

L-SEED circuit that generates the output Sn according to Eq. (13).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of a diode-clamped smart pixel and an example of the FET-SEED. The clamping diodes limit the excursion of the input voltage. V bi is the built-in voltage of the diodes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Throughput rate and laser-source power for the S-SEED-based bitonic sorter plotted as functions of the channel number. Each S-SEED element corresponds to a channel. The solid curve indicates the throughput rate achieved for sorting in 1024 data sets. The dashed curve shows the throughput when 65,536 elements are to be sorted. The corresponding amount of laser-source power required in both cases is shown by the dotted curve. The vertical hash mark on the lower horizontal axis indicates the chip-area limit (1 cm2).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Throughput rate and laser-source power for the L-SEED-based bitonic sorter plotted as functions of the channel number. Results of sorting 1024 data are represented by the solid curve. Each L-SEED node corresponds to one channel. The throughput rate of the S-SEED-based system is indicated for comparison (dashed curve).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Throughput rates of the CMOS-SEED- and FET-SEED-based 2 × 2 bitonic sorters plotted as functions of the channel number. Each node corresponds to two channels. The chip-area limits are indicated by the vertical hash marks on the horizontal axes.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Average power dissipated (dashed curve) and laser-source power required (solid curve) plotted as functions of the frequency of operation of the S-SEED. The area limit is indicated in long dashed lines. The limit on laser source power and heat dissipated which is induced by the sorting of 32 × 64 channels is represented by the horizontal solid line. See text.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Average power dissipated and laser-source power required for a 2 × 2 CMOS-SEED sorting node plotted as a function of the frequency of operation. See text for details.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Average power dissipated and laser-source power required for a 2 × 2 FET-SEED sorting node (AT&T Laboratories) plotted as a function of the frequency of operation. The maximum heat-removal capability of 10 W/cm−2 permits sorting no more than 8 × 8 data channels.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Definitions and Selected Values of the S-SEED-Technology Device Parameters

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Table 2 Performance Characteristics of S-SEED's and Hybrid-SEED-Based Smart Pixels for Data Sorting a

Equations (42)

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D n = D n 1 + A n B n ¯ + A n ¯ B n ,
S n = D n 1 ¯ A n B n ¯ + S n 1 D n 1 ,
N MSB hybrid = [ m 2 m + 1 ] ( L + F ) .
N MSB L SEED = [ m 2 m 2 3 ( 2 L + 1 ) + ( m 2 m + 2 ) L ] .
N MSB S SEED = [ m 2 m 2 ( 20 + 11 ) + ( m 2 m + 2 ) ] L = [ 33 m 2 33 m + 4 ] ( L / 2 ) .
α ( I ) = α 0 1 + I / I sat ,
R p ( P ) = R p ( 0 ) x , where x = 1 / ( 1 + P / P sat ) ,
S p ( P ) = S p ( 0 ) 1 R p ( P ) 1 R p ( 0 ) .
η = η bpg η bulk η inter ,
P high = 2 m 1 η R m P tot , P low = 2 m 1 η R p P tot .
T S SEED = 2 T conv + T opt = 2 C S SEED V init V fin d V | P R S ( V ) P S S ( V 0 V ) | + T opt ,
R p = R p ( P read ) ,
S p = S p ( P low ) = S p [ 2 m 1 η R p ( P read ) P tot ] , S p ( P high ) = S p ( 2 m 1 η R m P tot ) ,
T S SEED = 4 C cap A [ V t V m d V S m P R S p P S + V m V 0 V m d V S m ( P R P S ) + V 0 V m V 0 + V t d V S m P R S p P S ] + T opt ,
T S SEED = 4 C cap A [ V m + V t S m P high S p ( P low ) P low + V 0 + 2 V m S m ( P high P low ) + V t + V m S p ( P high ) P high S m P low ] + T opt .
T L SEED = 21 C cap A [ V t V m d V S m P R S p P S + V m V 0 V m d V S m ( P R P S ) + V 0 V m V 0 + V t d V S p P R S m P S ] + T opt .
w ( P high P low ) Δ E min = C in Δ V in S ¯ ,
T conv + T amp = 3 4 C in Δ V in S ¯ 1 ( P high P low ) + 2 C out Δ V log g m Δ V in ,
T out ( P = 0 ) = 2 C ex V 0 Δ I trans ,
T out ( P ) = T out ( 0 ) ( f / 2 ) ln ( f + 1 f 1 ) ,
T hybird = 3 4 C in Δ V in S ¯ 1 ( P high P low ) + 2 C out Δ V log g m Δ V in + T elec + T opt ,
H ( m ) = 10 6 2 m N ( m ) T ( m ) ,
H ( M , m ) = H ( m ) 1 ( M m ) 2 + ( M m ) + 1 M > m = H ( m ) ( m 2 m + 1 ) ( m 2 m + 1 ) ( m M ) m M < m .
T sort = 10 6 2 M H ( M , m ) s .
P sw = V init V final I ph S d V S + V final V init I ph R d V R ,
P sw = P high V init V final S ( V S ) d V S + P low V final V init S ( V R ) d V R .
P state = P read S ( V 0 + V t ) V 0 ,
P av = 1 2 ( P state + P sw ) = 1 2 { P read S ( V 0 + V t ) V 0 + ( P low + P high ) S m ( V 0 + V t V m ) + [ P low S p ( P low ) + P high S p ( P high ) ] ( V m + V t ) } .
P sw 1 = 2 η P read [ R m + R p ( P read ) ] S ¯ ( P read ) Δ V in .
P out 1 = 2 P read S p V 0 .
P av quasi cw = ( P sw 1 + P out 1 ) T conv + P elec T elec T ,
P sw 2 = P sw 1 / 2 .
P out 2 = P out 1 .
P av cw = P sw 1 T conv + P sw 2 ( T T conv ) + T elec P elec + ( T T out ) P out 1 + T conv P out 2 T .
P av cw = ( P sw 2 + P out 2 ) [ T + T conv ] + T elec P elec T .
G = time average power at detectors optical switching energy needed per channel ,
G S SEED = η 4 C cap A K ,
K = V m + V T S m R m S p R p + V 0 + V T V m S p R m S m R p .
G hybird = 2 η S ¯ ( R m R p ) C in Δ V in ,
H ( M ) ( M m ) 1 .
Δ V in , optim = 8 η S ¯ C out Δ V log ( R m R p ) 3 C in g m P tot 2 m + 1 .
S ¯

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