Abstract

We present a single-channel system for color image recognition that is based on a joint-transform correlator setup. The color images are encoded as phase and amplitude functions, inspired from the Munsell color representation. A real-time implementation of the new codification method can be achieved by the use of a spatial light modulator operating in phase-only modulation mode. We determine the optimal codification for a linear color-phase code. Its performance is compared with a conventional multichannel correlator by means of computer simulations. Experimental results are also presented.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Mendlovic, P. Garcia-Martinez, J. Garcia, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Liu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, T. W. Lin, D. A. Gregory, “Adaptive real-time pattern recognition using a liquid-crystal-TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1370–1372 (1987).
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  13. R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase-encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Eynard, ed., Color: Theory and Imaging Systems (Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 41–44.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal TV-based joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase-encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

1987 (1)

1984 (2)

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real-time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Liu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Badique, E.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real-time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Ferreira, C.

D. Mendlovic, P. Garcia-Martinez, J. Garcia, C. Ferreira, “Color encoding for polychromatic single-channel optical pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7538–7544 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

Garcia-Martinez, P.

Goldstein, D. H.

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase-encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D. A.

Honda, T.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jutamulia, S.

Kallman, R. R.

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase-encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konforti, N.

Kuo, C.

Lin, T. W.

Liu, X. J.

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Liu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Ludman, J. E.

B. Javidi, C. Kuo, Y. F. Chen, J. E. Ludman, “Color object identification by monocromatic binary correlation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 949–953 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real-time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Mendlovic, D.

Millan, M. S.

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K.

Paris, D. P.

Tsujiuchi, J.

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real-time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, C. S.

Wu, S. T.

Yang, Z.

Yu, F. T. S.

Yzuel, M. J.

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

C. Warde, H. J. Caulfield, F. T. S. Yu, J. E. Ludman, “Real-time joint spectral spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Commun. 49, 241–244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Liu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–16 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Badique, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, J. Tsujiuchi, “Color image correlation for spatial/spectral recognition and increased selectivity,” Opt. Commun. 68, 91–96 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. R. Kallman, D. H. Goldstein, “Phase-encoding input images for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1806–1812 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferreira, M. S. Millan, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Experimental results in color pattern recognition by multichannel matched filter,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2231–2238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

R. A. Eynard, ed., Color: Theory and Imaging Systems (Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 41–44.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Organization of the Munsell colors (a) with a constant value and (b) with a constant hue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Possible color-phase codes for eight-color images for (a) a 315° phase range and (b) a 270° phase range.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Possible color-phase codes for four-color images for (a) a 180° phase range and (b) a 135° phase range (the optimal phase range).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image color-code rotation: (a) the original color-phase code, and color transformations for (b) a one-step and (c) a two-step counterclockwise rotation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphic representation for the vectoric sum of the two phasors of Eq. (5).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the setup for a real-time JTC.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Map of the Middle East used in the experiment and the computer simulations (a) with eight colors and (b) with four colors. (c) The color key.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computer-simulation results for the correlation center intensity values versus the phase range for different color-code rotation steps. The numbers near each curve indicate the rotation steps. (a) An eight-color scene and (b) a four-color scene.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Amplitude-only input-plane representation of an eight-color phase-encoded scene obtained by the use of the complex reference method.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Autocorrelation plane for the color-phase code shown in (a) Fig. 3(b) and (b) Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vertical cross section through the autocorrelation plane shown in Fig. 10(a) and displaying the correlation distribution.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation Intensity Values for Eight-Color Images with Different Rotation Steps for a Color-Phase Code JTC Utilizing the Optimal Phase Range (157.5°) and for a Conventional Multichannel Correlator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Correlation Intensity Values for Four-Color Images with Different Rotation Steps for a Color-Phase Code JTC Utilizing the Optimal Phase Range (135°) and a Conventional Multichannel Correlator

Equations (7)

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Δ θ = θ MAX N 1 ,
θ MAX = 360 ° Δ θ
C M ( 0 , 0 ) = | f ref * ( x , y ) f ref M ( x , y ) d x d y | 2 ,
C 0 ( 0 , 0 ) = | | f ref ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | 2 = k = 1 N P k 2 = L 2 ,
C M ( 0 , 0 ) = | e i M Δ θ k = 1 N M P k + e i ( M N ) Δ θ k = ( N M ) + 1 N P k | 2 .
( M N ) Δ θ opt M Δ θ opt = 180 ° .
θ MAX opt = N 1 N ( 180 ° ) .

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