Abstract

Dichromated cellulose triacetate (DCCTA), a new, to our knowledge, holographic recording film, is presented. The material has some special properties, such as good environmental stability, a stronger real-time effect, strong relief modulation, a stratified sensitivity without the use of any coating technique, a light weight, flexibility, easy fabrication in a large area, and more. By the systematic study of the physicochemical changes of the microstructure of DCCTA in photochemical reaction processes with an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer, an UV spectrophotometer, and interferometric microscopy, we found that, as a dichromated light-sensitive system, DCCTA has a novel imaging mechanism: Light irradiation causes not only the formation of the cross links between Cr3+ and molecular chains but also the decomposition of the main molecular chains of the film. In the real-time imaging process of DCCTA holograms the former plays a dominant role after the holograms are postprocessed; however, the latter is more important in the imaging process, and the holograms exhibit a positive etching property, which differs completely from that of other well-known dichromated materials, such as dichromated gelatin and dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. J. Chang, “Dichromated gelatin holograms and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).
  2. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. T. Blair, L. Solymar, “Double exposure planar transmission holograms recorded in nonlinear dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 775–779 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Robertson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, “High-efficiency, wide-bandwidth optical fanout elements in dichromated gelatin,” Opt. Lett. 15, 694–696 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).
  8. R. A. Lessard, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Metal ion doped polymer systems for real-time holographic recording,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 438–448 (1991).
  9. R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).
  10. J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Application of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 67–71.
  11. K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).
  12. K. Wang, Study on New Holographic Recording Film DCCTA and Its Applications, (Ph.D. dissertation) (Sichuan Uniton University, Chengdu, China1994).
  13. L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).
  14. K. Wang, “New method for the fabrication of stratified gratings and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6666–6671 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. F. Rabek, Experimental Methods In Polymer Chemistry: Physical Principles And Applications, (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 232.
  17. P. Datta, B. R. Soller, “A study of photochemical reactions in a dichromated photoresist,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 23, 203–206 (1979).
  18. K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).
  19. K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).
  20. Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

1993 (2)

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).

1992 (2)

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).

L. T. Blair, L. Solymar, “Double exposure planar transmission holograms recorded in nonlinear dichromated gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 775–779 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).

1980 (1)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated gelatin holograms and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).

1979 (2)

P. Datta, B. R. Soller, “A study of photochemical reactions in a dichromated photoresist,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 23, 203–206 (1979).

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, L. T.

Capolla, N.

R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).

Chang, B. J.

Changkakoti, R.

R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).

R. A. Lessard, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Metal ion doped polymer systems for real-time holographic recording,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 438–448 (1991).

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).

Cheng, X.

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

Dahsiung, H.

F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).

Dai, C.

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).

Datta, P.

P. Datta, B. R. Soller, “A study of photochemical reactions in a dichromated photoresist,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 23, 203–206 (1979).

Guo, L.

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).

Guo, Y.

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

Hsu, P.

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

Jujin, Z.

F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).

Kavehrad, M.

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobolla, H.

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Application of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 67–71.

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).

R. A. Lessard, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Metal ion doped polymer systems for real-time holographic recording,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 438–448 (1991).

Manivannan, G.

R. A. Lessard, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Metal ion doped polymer systems for real-time holographic recording,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 438–448 (1991).

R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).

Rabek, J. F.

J. F. Rabek, Experimental Methods In Polymer Chemistry: Physical Principles And Applications, (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 232.

Robertson, B.

Schmidt, J.

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J. T.

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E. S.

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soller, B. R.

P. Datta, B. R. Soller, “A study of photochemical reactions in a dichromated photoresist,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 23, 203–206 (1979).

Solymar, L.

Streibl, N.

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Turunen, J.

Vasara, A.

Volkel, R.

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, “New method for the fabrication of stratified gratings and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6666–6671 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, C. Dai, J. Zhu, P. Xu, “Red sensitivity of dichromated cellulose triacetate as a holographic recoding material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1240–1242 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).

K. Wang, Study on New Holographic Recording Film DCCTA and Its Applications, (Ph.D. dissertation) (Sichuan Uniton University, Chengdu, China1994).

Xu, P.

Zhu, J.

Ziping, F.

F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).

Acta Opt. Sin. (3)

F. Ziping, Z. Jujin, H. Dahsiung, “Study and application of dichromated poly(vinyl) alcohol as real-time holographic recording material,” Acta Opt. Sin. 4, 1101–1106 (1984).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, “A new holographic recording material: dichromated cellulose triacetate,” Acta Opt. Sin. 13, 924–928 (1993).

K. Wang, L. Guo, Q. Chen, “Nongelatin dichromated holographic recording material and its real-time property,” Acta Opt. Sin. 11, 956–958 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chin. J. Lasers (1)

L. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, P. Hsu, “Fabricating blazing grating on NGD by photo-chemical etching,” Chin. J. Lasers 1, 361–366 (1992).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Kobolla, J. Schmidt, J. T. Sheridan, N. Streibl, R. Volkel, “Holographic optical beam splitters in dichromated gelatin,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 881–887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated gelatin holograms and their applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642–648 (1980).

E. S. Simova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic 4 × 4 star coupler in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2233–2239 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (1)

P. Datta, B. R. Soller, “A study of photochemical reactions in a dichromated photoresist,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 23, 203–206 (1979).

Sci. China (Ser. A) (1)

Q. Chen, K. Wang, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Real-time diffraction efficiency and anti-humidity mechanism of NGD holograms,” Sci. China (Ser. A) 37, 221–226 (1994).

Other (6)

K. Wang, Study on New Holographic Recording Film DCCTA and Its Applications, (Ph.D. dissertation) (Sichuan Uniton University, Chengdu, China1994).

K. Wang, Q. Chen, L. Guo, C. Dai, “Influence of electron donors on real-time diffraction efficiency of NGD holograms,” in Holographics International '92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 601–605 (1992).

J. F. Rabek, Experimental Methods In Polymer Chemistry: Physical Principles And Applications, (Wiley, New York, 1980), p. 232.

R. A. Lessard, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Metal ion doped polymer systems for real-time holographic recording,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE1559, 438–448 (1991).

R. A. Lessard, N. Capolla, R. Changkakoti, G. Manivannan, “Fabrication of holographic optical elements for the near infrared based on polymer materials,” in Soviet-Chinese Joint Seminar on Holography and Optical Information Processing (21–26 September 1991, Bishkek, Kirghistan), A. L. Mikaelian, ed., Proc. SPIE1731, 99–111 (1991).

J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Application of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 67–71.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unit structure of the cellulose molecule in DCCTA film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EPR spectra of Cr5+ in DCCTA film at room temperature, with exposure times of 1 min (curve 1), 8 min (curve 2), and 10 min (curve 3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV spectra of a DCCTA film without (curve 1) and with (curve 2) light irradiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Infrared spectra of a DCCTA film with sensitization (curve 1), exposure (curve 2), and postprocessing (curve 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferometric microscopy photographs of the relief shape of DCCTA holograms (a) without and (b) with postprocessing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation of the real-time diffraction efficiencies of DCCTA holograms versus the exposure time: concentration of DMSO in sensitization solution: filled circles 2.5%, open circles 5%, crosses 10%, and open squares 15%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schema of the physicochemical processes that occur in DCCTA film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Possible schema of the physicochemical processes that may occur in DCCTA film.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Visible Spectra of Various Chromium Oxidation States

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