Abstract

Detuned interference filters as Fourier processors can be used to enhance the poor fringe contrast often encountered with in-line Fraunhofer holography of small or many far-fields-away micro-objects. The subsequent effect on the reconstructed-image irradiance distribution is described. The modified aperture-limited image shape and size, and the possible consequences on the quantitative analysis are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Thompson, “Holographic methods for particle size and velocity measurement—recent advances,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. SPIE1136, 308–326 (1989).
  2. C. S. Vikram, “Trends in far-field holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 13, 27–38 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Vikram, Particle Field Holography (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Santangelo, P. E. Sojka, “Holographic particle diagnostics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 19, 587–603 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Matsumoto, “Visualization of DNA in solution by Fraunhofer in-line electron holography: I. Simulation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 25–28 (1995).
  6. C. S. Vikram, “Resolution limits due to primary aberrations in Fraunhofer holography,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 29–31 (1995).
  7. C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).
  8. G. Wang, Z. Hao, “Image processing of particle field hologram,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 369–373 (1995).
  9. H. Meng, F. Hussain, “In-line recording and off-axis viewing technique for holographic particle velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1827–1840 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Meng, F. Hussain, “Instantaneous flow field in an unstable vortex ring measured by holographic particle velocimetry,” Phys. Fluids 7, 9–11 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. D. Liu, F. Hussain, “Off-axis holographic technique for particle image velocimetry using a Fourier-transform lens,” Opt. Lett. 20, 327–329 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. Trolinger, R. B. Lal, D. McIntosh, W. K. Witherow, “Holographic particle image velocimetry in the first international microgravity laboratory aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery,” Appl. Opt. 35, 681–689 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. S. Vikram, ed., Selected Papers on Holographic Particle Diagnostics, Vol. MS 21 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), Sec. 4, pp. 179–234.
  15. G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, “Real-time preprocessing of holographic information,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3174–3180 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Belz, F. M. Shofner, “Characteristics and measurements of an aperture-limited in-line hologram image,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2215–2222 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

J. D. Trolinger, R. B. Lal, D. McIntosh, W. K. Witherow, “Holographic particle image velocimetry in the first international microgravity laboratory aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery,” Appl. Opt. 35, 681–689 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (8)

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, “Real-time preprocessing of holographic information,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3174–3180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, “Visualization of DNA in solution by Fraunhofer in-line electron holography: I. Simulation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 25–28 (1995).

C. S. Vikram, “Resolution limits due to primary aberrations in Fraunhofer holography,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 29–31 (1995).

H. Meng, F. Hussain, “In-line recording and off-axis viewing technique for holographic particle velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1827–1840 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Meng, F. Hussain, “Instantaneous flow field in an unstable vortex ring measured by holographic particle velocimetry,” Phys. Fluids 7, 9–11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Liu, F. Hussain, “Off-axis holographic technique for particle image velocimetry using a Fourier-transform lens,” Opt. Lett. 20, 327–329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Santangelo, P. E. Sojka, “Holographic particle diagnostics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 19, 587–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. S. Vikram, “Trends in far-field holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 13, 27–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Anderson, C.

C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).

Belz, R. A.

Bertani, D.

G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cetica, M.

G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doh, K.

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doh, K. B.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).

Hao, Z.

G. Wang, Z. Hao, “Image processing of particle field hologram,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 369–373 (1995).

Hussain, F.

Lal, R. B.

Liu, D. D.

Marsh, J.

C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, “Visualization of DNA in solution by Fraunhofer in-line electron holography: I. Simulation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 25–28 (1995).

McIntosh, D.

Meng, H.

H. Meng, F. Hussain, “In-line recording and off-axis viewing technique for holographic particle velocimetry,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1827–1840 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Meng, F. Hussain, “Instantaneous flow field in an unstable vortex ring measured by holographic particle velocimetry,” Phys. Fluids 7, 9–11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molesini, G.

G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poon, T.-C.

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, “Real-time preprocessing of holographic information,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3174–3180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Santangelo, P. J.

P. J. Santangelo, P. E. Sojka, “Holographic particle diagnostics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 19, 587–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, B. W.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, “Real-time preprocessing of holographic information,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3174–3180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, K.

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shofner, F. M.

Sojka, P. E.

P. J. Santangelo, P. E. Sojka, “Holographic particle diagnostics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 19, 587–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. J.

B. J. Thompson, “Holographic methods for particle size and velocity measurement—recent advances,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. SPIE1136, 308–326 (1989).

Trolinger, J. D.

Vikram, C. S.

C. S. Vikram, “Resolution limits due to primary aberrations in Fraunhofer holography,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 29–31 (1995).

C. S. Vikram, “Trends in far-field holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 13, 27–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Vikram, Particle Field Holography (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, Z. Hao, “Image processing of particle field hologram,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 369–373 (1995).

Watts, D.

C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).

Witherow, W. K.

Wu, M. H.

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Acta (1)

G. Molesini, D. Bertani, M. Cetica, “In-line holography with interference filters as Fourier processors,” Opt. Acta 29, 479–484 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1338–1344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, “Real-time preprocessing of holographic information,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3174–3180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

K. Doh, T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Twin-image elimination in optical scanning holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 135–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. De Natale, P. Ferraro, G. Pierattini, “A method for the determination of three-dimensional velocity fields from holographic images,” Opt. Laser Technol. 27, 103–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

C. S. Vikram, “Trends in far-field holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 13, 27–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Stuttgart) (2)

T. Matsumoto, “Visualization of DNA in solution by Fraunhofer in-line electron holography: I. Simulation,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 25–28 (1995).

C. S. Vikram, “Resolution limits due to primary aberrations in Fraunhofer holography,” Optik (Stuttgart) 99, 29–31 (1995).

Phys. Fluids (1)

H. Meng, F. Hussain, “Instantaneous flow field in an unstable vortex ring measured by holographic particle velocimetry,” Phys. Fluids 7, 9–11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

T.-C. Poon, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, “Optical scanning holography,” Proc. IEEE 84, 753–764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

P. J. Santangelo, P. E. Sojka, “Holographic particle diagnostics,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 19, 587–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. J. Thompson, “Holographic methods for particle size and velocity measurement—recent advances,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. SPIE1136, 308–326 (1989).

C. S. Vikram, Particle Field Holography (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Anderson, J. Gordon, D. Watts, J. Marsh, “Measurement of behind-armor debris using cylindrical holograms,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 132–146 (1995).

G. Wang, Z. Hao, “Image processing of particle field hologram,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 369–373 (1995).

C. S. Vikram, ed., Selected Papers on Holographic Particle Diagnostics, Vol. MS 21 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), Sec. 4, pp. 179–234.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the recording arrangement for inline Fraunhofer holography with a detuned interference filter as a Fourier processor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the transmission function used in the current study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized irradiance distribution |I 2(α)λI 2(0)|2 for some values of α k . The solid and dashed curves represent the cases without and with the detuned filter, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Value of α at 25% of the central image irradiance in a range of α k . The dashed and solid curves correspond to the cases with and without the detuned filter, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the last-maxima position versus m for the cases with and without the detuned filter.

Equations (7)

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ψ ( x , y ) = i B λ 0 z 0 exp ( i k 0 z 0 ) + + [ 1 A ( ξ , η ) ] × t ( x λ 0 z 0 , y λ 0 z 0 ) × exp { i k 0 2 z 0 [ ( x ξ ) 2 + ( y η ) 2 ] } d ξ d η ,
I ( x , y ) = | ψ ( x , y ) | 2 = B 2 { t 2 ( 0 , 0 ) 2 t ( 0 , 0 ) λ 0 | z 0 | t ( x λ 0 | z 0 | , y λ 0 | z 0 | ) × sin [ π r 2 λ 0 | z 0 | + ϕ ( x λ 0 | z 0 | , y λ 0 | z 0 | ) ] × A 0 ( x λ 0 | z 0 | , y λ 0 | z 0 | ) + ( 1 λ 0 z 0 ) 2 A 0 2 ( x λ 0 | z 0 | , y λ 0 | z 0 | ) }
A ( x λ 0 | z 0 | , y λ 0 | z 0 | ) = + + A ( ξ , η ) × exp { 2 π i [ x ξ + y η λ 0 | z 0 | ] } d ξ d η ,
ϑ ( x , y ) = I max I min I max + I min = ( 2 / λ 0 | z 0 | ) t ( 0 , 0 ) t ( x / λ 0 | z 0 | , y / λ 0 | z 0 | ) A ( x / λ 0 | z 0 | , y / λ 0 | z 0 | ) t 2 ( 0 , 0 ) + ( 1 / λ 0 | z 0 | ) 2 t 2 ( x / λ 0 | z 0 | , y / λ 0 | z 0 | ) A 2 ( x / λ 0 | z 0 | , y / λ 0 | z 0 | ) .
I 2 ( α ) = 0 α k J 1 ( R ) J 0 ( α R ) d R ,
I 2 ( α ) = 0 α k J 1 ( R ) J 0 ( α R ) t ( R ) d R .
t ( R ) = 0.5 { [ 1 ( R 0.7 α k ) 2 ] 2 + 0.25 ( R 0.7 α k ) 2 } 1 / 2 .

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