Abstract

The obvious influence of the internal photoinduced electric field on the formation of self-pumped phase conjugation in doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals has been investigated with intermittent and continuous laser beams. An analysis is given that involves the migration of charge carriers driven by the photovoltaic (PV) and the pyroelectric (PY) electric field. Deviation from the optimal state of energy transfer owing to the PV effect and the self-adjusting of holograms owing to the PY field are the two important dominant processes in the self-pumped phase conjugator. The influence of the photoinduced electric field on the conjugation fidelity and the stability of the phase-conjugate output is also observed and analyzed. The bump feature of the two-wave mixing and the oscillating situation of the self-pumped phase conjugator are observed and are explained in view of the photoinduced internal field.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of infrared-sensitive rhodium-doped barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 19, 536–538 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Bian, J. Zhang, X. Su, K. Xu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, D. Sun, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of 18°-cut Ce-doped KNSBN crystal at 632.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 769–771 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Feinberg, “Self-pumped, continuous-wave phase conjugator using reflection,” Opt. Lett. 7, 486–488 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. A. Brost, R. A. Motes, J. R. Rotge, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive effects in barium titanate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1879–1885 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Buse, K. H. Ringhofer, “Pyroelectric drive for light-induced charge transport in the photorefractive process,” Appl. Phys. A 57, 161–165 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Buse, “Thermal gratings and pyroelectrically produced charge redistribution in BaTiO3 and KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1266–1275 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Jermann, K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 437–443 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).
  12. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.
  14. M. Carrascoca, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López, “Steady holographic gratings formed in photorefractive materials: influence of material parameters,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-22, 509–515 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Yeh, “Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484–519 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. M. Pepper, “Observation of diminished specular reflectivity from phase conjugate mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945–2948 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

F. Jermann, K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, “Spectroscopic and photorefractive properties of infrared-sensitive rhodium-doped barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 19, 536–538 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

1991 (1)

M. Carrascoca, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López, “Steady holographic gratings formed in photorefractive materials: influence of material parameters,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-22, 509–515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

P. Yeh, “Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484–519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Pepper, “Observation of diminished specular reflectivity from phase conjugate mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

G. A. Brost, R. A. Motes, J. R. Rotge, “Intensity-dependent absorption and photorefractive effects in barium titanate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1879–1885 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

1986 (1)

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1974 (1)

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

M. Carrascoca, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López, “Steady holographic gratings formed in photorefractive materials: influence of material parameters,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-22, 509–515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albers, J.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anspokes, A.

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

Brost, G. A.

Buse, K.

F. Jermann, K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, K. H. Ringhofer, “Pyroelectric drive for light-induced charge transport in the photorefractive process,” Appl. Phys. A 57, 161–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, “Thermal gratings and pyroelectrically produced charge redistribution in BaTiO3 and KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1266–1275 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

M. Carrascoca, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López, “Steady holographic gratings formed in photorefractive materials: influence of material parameters,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-22, 509–515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carrascoca, M.

M. Carrascoca, J. M. Cabrera, F. Agulló-López, “Steady holographic gratings formed in photorefractive materials: influence of material parameters,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-22, 509–515 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, J. Zhang, X. Su, K. Xu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, D. Sun, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of 18°-cut Ce-doped KNSBN crystal at 632.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 769–771 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Cory, W. K.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

Ewbank, M. D.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

Feinberg, J.

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Goltz, J.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. F.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

Herden, A.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

F. Jermann, K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Jiang, Q.

Klein, M. B.

Klumb, H.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krumins, A.

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laseri, F.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Motes, R. A.

Mu, X.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Negran, J. J.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C. C.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

Odoulov, S. G.

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, “Development and modification of photorefractive properties in the tungsten bronze family crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 392–405 (1987).

Pepper, D. M.

D. M. Pepper, “Observation of diminished specular reflectivity from phase conjugate mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringhofer, K. H.

K. Buse, K. H. Ringhofer, “Pyroelectric drive for light-induced charge transport in the photorefractive process,” Appl. Phys. A 57, 161–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rotge, J. R.

Schwartz, R. N.

Seglines, J.

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Song, Y.

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

Sun, D.

Q. Jiang, X. Lu, Y. Song, D. Sun, H. Chen, “Copper-ion point defects in the photorefractive material (KxNa1-x)0.4 (SryBa1-y)0.8Nb2O6,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 4185–4188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, J. Zhang, X. Su, K. Xu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, D. Sun, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of 18°-cut Ce-doped KNSBN crystal at 632.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 769–771 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

T. Tschudi, A. Herden, J. Goltz, H. Klumb, F. Laseri, J. Albers, “Image amplification by two- and four-wave mixing in BaTiO3 photorefractive crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1493–1502 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vaivods, P.

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Voit, E.

P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

Xu, K.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, “Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484–519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zha, M. Z.

P. Günter, E. Voit, M. Z. Zha, J. Albers, “Self-pulsation and optical chaos in self-pumped photorefractive BatiO3,” Opt. Commun. 55, 210–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bian, J. Zhang, X. Su, K. Xu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, D. Sun, “Self-pumped phase conjugation of 18°-cut Ce-doped KNSBN crystal at 632.8 nm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 769–771 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, Q. Jiang, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Observation of multireflections from cat self-pumped phase conjugators with Cu-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9 Nb2O6 crystals and conjugation fidelity analysis,” Opt. Lett. 20, 979–981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

K. Buse, K. H. Ringhofer, “Pyroelectric drive for light-induced charge transport in the photorefractive process,” Appl. Phys. A 57, 161–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Jermann, K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3:Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Mu, Z. Shao, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugator with Ce- and Mn-doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, J. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

A. Krumins, A. Anspokes, S. G. Odoulov, J. Seglines, P. Vaivods, “Thermal holograms in doped ferroelectric SBN crystals,” Ferroelectrics 80, 277–280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Yeh, “Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484–519 (1989).
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J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Shao, X. Mu, H. Chen, M. Jiang, “Enhancement/reduction of response rate of self-pumped phase conjugators with doped (K0.5Na0.5)0.2(Sr0.75Ba0.25)0.9Nb2O6 crystals using intermittent light,” in Technical Digest of CLEO/Pacific Rim 95, 10–14 July 1995, Chiba, Japan (1995), pp. 13–14.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for observing the self-restrained effect: L, laser; S, shutter; IR, iris; BS, beam splitter; D1, D2, photoelectric detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity of the self-pumped phase conjugate beam versus time for the intermittent and the continuous mode. (a), (b), and (c) correspond to X = 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 mm, respectively. I (dashed line), continuous mode; II (solid curve), intermittent mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamics of the self-pumped, phase-conjugate beam versus time for the intermittent and the continuous mode. (a), (b), samples 2, 3, respectively. Curve I, the cw mode; curve II, the intermittent mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relations between the current density and the applied field E 0 under different incident-light intensities for KNSBN crystals: (a), (b), (c), (d) nominally pure KNSBN, sample 1, sample 2, sample 3, respectively; (e) schematic diagram of the dynamic feature of the photoinduced current in the case where there is no applied field on the KNSBN crystal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Bump feature of the reflective portion of the self-pumped, phase-conjugate beam on the incident crystal–air interface for an intermittent incident beam. (b) Relationship of the intensity increment of the reflective portion of the self-pumped, phase-conjugate beam versus the light-off interval. (c) Dynamic feature of the transmitted pump beam; the zero values correspond to the interval where both light beams are off. (d) Relationship of the intensity increment of the transmitted pump beam versus the light-off interval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Oscillatory behavior of the CAT SPPC output for the Ce: KNSBN crystal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reduction of the conjugation fidelity of the CAT SPPC for the Ce:KNSBN crystal: (a) input image, (b) output replica of the input image if no phase aberrator was inserted in the incident path, (c) distorting input image owing to the introduction of a phase aberrator, (d) output replica of the input image if the phase aberrator were inserted.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Internal paths associated with the steady state of the three samples: (a), (b), (c) samples 1, 2, 3, respectively.

Equations (5)

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j = e μ n ( E 0 + E p υ + E s c ) μ k B T d n d z ,
E p υ = α κ I ( σ d + σ p h ) = j p υ ( σ d + σ p h ) ,
E s c = F E q [ E d i ( E 0 + E p υ ) ] E 0 + E p υ + i ( E d + E q ) I 1 I 0 ,
tan ϕ = E q ( E 0 + E p υ ) E d E q + E d 2 + ( E 0 + E p υ ) 2 .
Δ ψ = β γ ( 1 + m ) exp ( γ z ) m + exp ( γ z ) ,

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